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Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. The present study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The geometric framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10 % total body surface area contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of the eleven high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5−60 %), carbohydrate (C20−75 %) and fat (F20−75 %). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of about 7 kJ/d (about 15 % of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate protein, high carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.
This study identified factors affecting seniors’ ability to self-manage their health following an Emergency Department (ED) visit. Surveys (n = 380) completed by older adults and their caregivers in the ED assessed their understanding of information provided. Interviews (n = 51) completed with a participant subsample up to four weeks post-ED visit examined self-management factors. Perceived understanding of the information (“Yes, definitely”) received in the ED was greater at the time of the visit (91%) than at follow-up (71%). Patients reported self-management was influenced by communication with ED staff, understanding of post-discharge expectations and the health condition(s), caregiver availability, and various external factors. Caregivers also identified support for caregivers and patient resistance to recommendations. Senior-friendly strategies (e.g., recommendations in writing, confirmed understanding of recommendations), particularly those related to identifying those at risk and needing greater transitional supports, and greater access to and integration with community supports could enhance post-ED self-management.
Herbicide active ingredients, formulation type, ambient temperature, and humidity can influence volatility. A method was developed using volatility chambers to compare relative volatility of different synthetic auxin herbicide formulations in controlled environments. 2,4-D or dicamba acid vapors emanating after application were captured in air-sampling tubes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after herbicide application. The 2,4-D or dicamba was extracted from sample tubes and quantified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Volatility from 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA) was determined to be greater than that of 2,4-D choline in chambers where temperatures were held at 30 or 40 C and relative humidity (RH) was 20% or 50%. Air concentration of 2,4-D DMA was 0.399 µg m−3 at 40 C and 20% RH compared with 0.005 µg m−3 for 2,4-D choline at the same temperature and humidity at 24 h after application. Volatility from 2,4-D DMA and 2,4-D choline increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40 C. However, volatility from 2,4-D choline was lower than observed from 2,4-D DMA. Volatility from 2,4-D choline at 40 C increased from 0.00458 to 0.0263 µg m−3 and from 0.00341 to 0.025 µg m−3 when humidity increased from 20% to 50% at 72 and 96 h after treatment, respectively, whereas, volatility from 2,4-D DMA tended to be higher at 20% RH compared with 50% RH. Air concentration of dicamba diglycolamine was similar at all time points when measured at 40 C and 20% RH. By 96 h after treatment, there was a trend for lower air concentration of dicamba compared with earlier timings. This method using volatility chambers provided good repeatability with low variability across replications, experiments, and herbicides.
The two major approaches to studying macroevolution in deep time are the fossil record and reconstructed relationships among extant taxa from molecular data. Results based on one approach sometimes conflict with those based on the other, with inconsistencies often attributed to inherent flaws of one (or the other) data source. Any contradiction between the molecular and fossil records represents a failure of our ability to understand the imperfections of our data, as both are limited reflections of the same evolutionary history. We therefore need to develop conceptual and mathematical models that jointly explain our observations in both records. Fortunately, the different limitations of each record provide an opportunity to test or calibrate the other, and new methodological developments leverage both records simultaneously. However, we must reckon with the distinct relationships between sampling and time in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. These differences impact our recognition of baselines and the analytical incorporation of age estimate uncertainty.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
Enlist E3™ soybean, resistant to 2,4-D, glufosinate, and glyphosate, provides options to control glyphosate-resistant Sumatran fleabane before planting and in crop. Twenty field trials were conducted in Argentina to determine Enlist E3 soybean sensitivity to POST applications of 2,4-D choline+glyphosate or glufosinate. Maximum injury from a single 2,4-D choline+glyphosate application at 1X (1140+1140 g ae ha−1) and 2X rate was 4% and 13%, respectively, at 3 days after treatment in the temperate Humid Pampa region. Slightly higher injury of 11 and 23% was observed in sub-tropical region of northern Argentina. Injury was transient with recovery occurring within 14 days. Injury caused by sequential applications was equivalent to that caused by single applications. Soybean yield was not affected by single nor sequential applications. In four trials, control programs containing 2,4-D choline+glyphosate applied PRE and POST provided greater GR Sumatran fleabane control and a 12 to 26% increase in yield compared to 2,4-D choline+glyphosate applied at PRE only. This research demonstrates the glyphosate-resistant control programs that include 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and glufosinate provide excellent GR Sumatran fleabane control.
Health anxiety and medically unexplained symptoms cost the National
Health Service (NHS) an estimated £3 billion per year in unnecessary
costs with little evidence of patient benefit. Effective treatment is
rarely taken up due to issues such as stigma or previous negative
experiences with mental health services. An approach to overcome this
might be to offer remotely delivered psychological therapy, which can be
just as effective as face-to-face therapy and may be more accessible and
To investigate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of remotely
delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) to people with high health
anxiety repeatedly accessing unscheduled care (trial registration:
A multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be undertaken in
primary and secondary care providers of unscheduled care across the East
Midlands. One hundred and forty-four eligible participants will be
equally randomised to receive either remote CBT (6–12 sessions) or
treatment as usual (TAU). Two doctoral research studies will investigate
the barriers and facilitators to delivering the intervention and the
factors contributing to the optimisation of therapeutic outcome.
This trial will be the first to test the clinical outcomes and
cost-effectiveness of remotely delivered CBT for the treatment of high
The findings will enable an understanding as to how this intervention
might fit into a wider care pathway to enhance patient experience of
Experimental studies have shown that human macronutrient regulation minimizes variation in absolute protein intake and consequently energy intake varies passively with dietary protein density (‘protein leverage’). According to the ‘protein leverage hypothesis’ (PLH), protein leverage interacts with a reduction in dietary protein density to drive energy overconsumption and obesity. Worldwide increase in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been hypothesized to be an important determinant of dietary protein dilution, and consequently an ecological driving force of energy overconsumption and the obesity pandemic. The present study examined the relationships between dietary contribution of UPF, dietary proportional protein content and the absolute intakes of protein and energy.
National representative cross-sectional study.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010.
Participants (n 9042) aged ≥2 years with at least one day of 24 h dietary recall data.
We found a strong inverse relationship between consumption of UPF and dietary protein density, with mean protein content dropping from 18·2 to 13·3 % between the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary contribution of UPF. Consistent with the PLH, increase in the dietary contribution of UPF (previously shown to be inversely associated with protein density) was also associated with a rise in total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant.
The protein-diluting effect of UPF might be one mechanism accounting for their association with excess energy intake. Reducing UPF contribution in the US diet may be an effective way to increase its dietary protein concentration and prevent excessive energy intake.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
A total of ten experimental diets with protein concentrations ranging from 154 to 400 g/kg and two lipid levels (46 and 85 g/kg) with identical energy densities were offered to 240 male Ross 308 broilers from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. Growth performance was monitored and nutrient utilisation (apparent metabolisable energy (AME), N-corrected AME (AMEn), AME daily intake, AME:gross energy ratios, N retention) was determined. The weight gain response of broiler chickens to dietary protein concentrations in diets containing high and low lipid levels was diverse, with the relevant quadratic regressions being significantly different (P<0·05). With low lipid levels, the predicted maximum weight gain of 1809 g/bird equated to 342 g/kg dietary protein, whereas, for high lipid levels the predicted maximum weight gain of 1694 g/bird equated to 281 g/kg dietary protein. AME was linearly correlated with dietary protein concentration but regressions in diets with different lipid content were not significantly different (P>0·05). AMEn was also linearly (P<0·0001) increased with dietary protein concentrations but regressions in diets with low and high lipid content were significantly different (P<0·03). Carcass protein content increased linearly with dietary protein content in diets containing high lipid concentrations (r 0·933, P<0·0001); by contrast, this relationship was quadratic (R2=0·93, P<0·0001) in diets with low lipid levels. In conclusion, predictably, the effects of dietary protein concentrations on broiler performance were profound; however, the impact of dietary protein on performance in broiler chickens was modified by dietary lipid concentrations.
The revised Dietary Guideline Index (DGI-2013) scores individuals’ diets according to their compliance with the Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG). This cross-sectional study assesses the diet quality of 794 community-dwelling men aged 74 years and older, living in Sydney, Australia participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project; it also examines sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with DGI-2013 scores; it studies associations between DGI-2103 scores and the following measures: homoeostasis model assessment – insulin resistance, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG, blood pressure, waist:hip ratio, BMI, number of co-morbidities and medications and frailty status while also accounting for the effect of ethnicity in these relationships. Median DGI-2013 score was 93·7 (54·4, 121·2); most individuals failed to meet recommendations for vegetables, dairy products and alternatives, added sugar, unsaturated fat and SFA, fluid and discretionary foods. Lower education, income, physical activity levels and smoking were associated with low scores. After adjustments for confounders, high DGI-2013 scores were associated with lower HDL-cholesterol, lower waist:hip ratios and lower probability of being frail. Proxies of good health (fewer co-morbidities and medications) were not associated with better compliance to the ADG. However, in participants with a Mediterranean background, low DGI-2013 scores were not generally associated with poorer health. Older men demonstrated poor diet quality as assessed by the DGI-2013, and the association between dietary guidelines and health measures and indices may be influenced by ethnic background.
The Enlist™ traits provide 2,4-D resistance in several crops. Though corn is naturally tolerant to 2,4-D, the engineered trait conferred by the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) enzyme provides enhanced 2,4-D tolerance and confers resistance to the graminicide herbicide family, the aryloxyphenoxypropionates. The objectives of this research were 2-fold: (1) measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist™ (E, +AAD1) and non–AAD-1 transformed (NT, −AAD1) isogenic corn hybrids; and (2) and investigate the effect of glyphosate and/or the Enlist™ adjuvant system (ADJ) on these factors and corn injury. Uptake of radiolabeled 2,4-D acid applied alone in corn was not altered by the addition of ADJ when tank mixed at 24 h after application (HAA). By contrast, uptake of radiolabeled 2,4-D was significantly lower (69%) compared with 2,4-D plus ADJ (89%) at 24 HAA with a premixed formulation of 2,4-D choline plus glyphosate-dimethylamine (Enlist Duo™ herbicide [EDH]). Translocation of 2,4-D between the two corn hybrids was not different. E corn metabolized more 2,4-D (100% of absorbed) than NT corn (84%), and glyphosate did not alter 2,4-D metabolism. Furthermore, the metabolism of 2,4-D to nonphytotoxic dichlorophenol (DCP) and subsequent DCP-derived metabolites formed in E corn was examined. Injury to E corn is not typically observed in the field; however, injury symptoms were clearly evident in E corn (within 24 HAA) when formulated acetochlor was tank mixed with EDH, which correlated with an increase in 2,4-D uptake during this time period. In summary, the lack of injury in E corn following EDH applied alone may be attributed to a relatively low amount of 2,4-D uptake and the combination of natural and engineered 2,4-D metabolic pathways.
In 2011, 14 Midwest trial locations evaluated tolerance of an AAD-1 and glyphosate-resistant corn hybrid to a 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix formulation applied single and sequential POST at V4 and/or V7 corn with and without a PRE application of 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA). Herbicides were applied at 1X and 2X maximum use rates with 1X rates of 1120 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and 2,4-D DMA and 1065+1120 g ae ha−1 for the 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix, respectively. Crop response was greatest 2 d after 2X rate applications, resulting in 4 to 10% visible injury to corn across application timings. No brace root injury or effect on corn grain yield were observed.
The right-angled triangle mixture experiment was designed to include fourteen diets with different concentrations of starch, protein and lipid. Experimental diets were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 10 to 23 d after hatching, and response curves and surfaces were generated to illustrate the influence of macronutrients on growth performance and nutrient utilisations. Despite the primary function of macronutrients, especially protein, may not be providing energy, macronutrients were expressed as energy derived from starch, protein and fat for statistical purposes in the mixture design. Energy derived from lipid had a greater impact on feed intake than energy derived from starch and protein. When we compared the influence of starch and protein on feed intake, ‘equal distance rule’ was observed, which means the animal consumes feed to the point on its respective nutritional rails where the shortage of starch exactly equals the surplus of consumed protein. Increasing the protein-derived energy intake increased weight gain in broiler chickens, whereas energy intake derived from starch and lipid had little impact on weight gain. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) may be reduced by either increasing protein energy intake or decreasing starch energy intake. As the slope of the contours was less than 1, the influence of starch energy intakes on FCR exceeded that of protein energy intakes. In conclusion, energy derived from protein is more important than non-protein energy in terms of weight gain, and a balance between protein and energy supplies is required for efficient muscle protein deposition.
As survival after cardiac surgery continues to improve, an increasing number of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are reaching school age and beyond, with growing recognition of the wide range of neurodevelopmental challenges many survivors face. Improvements in fetal detection rates, coupled with advances in fetal ultrasound and MRI imaging, are contributing to a growing body of evidence that abnormal brain architecture is in fact present before birth in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients, rather than being solely attributable to postnatal factors. We present an overview of the contemporary data on neurodevelopmental outcomes in hypoplastic left heart syndrome, focussing on imaging techniques that are providing greater insight into the nature of disruptions to the fetal circulation, alterations in cerebral blood flow and substrate delivery, disordered brain development, and an increased potential for neurological injury. These susceptibilities are present before any intervention, and are almost certainly substantial contributors to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in later childhood. The task now is to determine which subgroups of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are at particular risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes and how that risk might be modified. This will allow for more comprehensive counselling for carers, better-informed decision making before birth, and earlier, more tailored provision of neuroprotective strategies and developmental support in the postnatal period.
Previous research shows that older men tend to have lower nutritional intakes and higher risk of under-nutrition compared with younger men. The objectives of this study were to describe energy and nutrient intakes, assess nutritional risk and investigate factors associated with poor intake of energy and key nutrients in community-dwelling men aged ≥75 years participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project – a longitudinal cohort study on older men in Sydney, Australia. A total of 794 men (mean age 81·4 years) had a detailed diet history interview, which was carried out by a dietitian. Dietary adequacy was assessed by comparing median intakes with nutrient reference values (NRV): estimated average requirement, adequate intake or upper level of intake. Attainment of NRV of total energy and key nutrients in older age (protein, Fe, Zn, riboflavin, Ca and vitamin D) was incorporated into a ‘key nutrients’ variable dichotomised as ‘good’ (≥5) or ‘poor’ (≤4). Using logistic regression modelling, we examined associations between key nutrients with factors known to affect food intake. Median energy intake was 8728 kJ (P5=5762 kJ, P95=12 303 kJ), and mean BMI was 27·7 (sd 4·0) kg/m2. Men met their NRV for most nutrients. However, only 1 % of men met their NRV for vitamin D, only 19 % for Ca, only 30 % for K and only 33 % for dietary fibre. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only country of birth was significantly associated with poor nutritional intake. Dietary intakes were adequate for most nutrients; however, only half of the participants met the NRV of ≥5 key nutrients.
New trait technology incorporating 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resistance in soybean provides an alternative method to control weeds. However, the effect of postemergence treatments of 2,4-D on aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) soybean on injury and yield components has not been reported. Our objectives were to characterize the effect of 2,4-D (dimethylamine salt) rates (0, 1,120, and 2,240 g ae ha−1) and soybean growth stage (V5, R2, or V5 followed by R2) on AAD-12 soybean injury and yield components. Less than 3% soybean injury was observed when 2,240 g ha−1 of 2,4-D was applied to R2 soybean, and less than 1% soybean injury was caused by 1,120 g ha−1 of 2,4-D. Seed yield, seed mass, pod number, seed number, seed per pod, reproductive node number, pods per reproductive node, node number, and percent reproductive nodes were not affected by 2,4-D treatments when applied at the V5, R2, or the V5 followed by R2 soybean growth stage. This research demonstrates that soybean transformed with AAD-12 can tolerate foliar applications of 2,4-D at rates up to 2,240 g ha−1 with no effect on soybean grain yield components.