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The first edition of the Cambridge Companion to Plato (1992), edited by Richard Kraut, shaped scholarly research and guided new students for thirty years. This new edition introduces students to fresh approaches to Platonic dialogues while advancing the next generation of research. Of its seventeen chapters, nine are entirely new, written by a new generation of scholars. Six others have been thoroughly revised and updated by their original authors. The volume covers the full range of Plato's interests, including ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, religion, mathematics, and psychology. Plato's dialogues are approached as unified works and considered within their intellectual context, and the revised introduction suggests a way of reading the dialogues that attends to the differences between them while also tracing their interrelations. The result is a rich and wide-ranging volume which will be valuable for all students and scholars of Plato.
The Homa Peninsula has been known to science since 1911, and fossil specimens from the area comprise many type specimens for common African mammalian paleospecies. Here we discuss the fauna and the paleoenvironmental information from the Homa Peninsula. The Homa Peninsula is a 200 km2 area in Homa Bay County, situated on the southern margin of the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria in Kenya (Figure 29.1). Lake Victoria is estimated to be the third largest lake in the world, with a surface area of 68,900 km2 and a maximum length of approximately 616 km. Although its catchment is extensive, it is relatively shallow compared to any other lake of similar size, with a maximum depth of 84 m. Lake Victoria is located in a depression formed by the western and eastern branches of the East African Rift System (EARS), and is at an average elevation of 1135 m a.s.l. (Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters, 2017).
Background: Patients requiring vascular catheters are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), particularly those with central venous access devices (CVADs). Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) may occur as a result of the introduction of pathogenic microbes during CVAD access procedures, including through the needleless connector. The use of an antiseptic scrub is recommended to disinfect the needleless connector before device access, and this procedure has been shown to reduce the risk for CLABSI. We identified perceived barriers and facilitators and assessed compliance with instructions for use of chlorhexidine or alcohol antisepsis products (CHG or IPA; 5-second scrub time plus 5-second dry time) and alcohol antisepsis products (IPA; facility protocol 15-second scrub time plus let dry) for needleless connector disinfection. Methods: We performed a multiple-methods study involving focus groups composed of a convenience sample of nurses and clinical observations of CVAD needleless-connector access procedures in 3 medical ICUs and 1 surgical ICU at 2 academic medical centers. We used open-ended questions to guide the focus-group discussions. We directly observed nursing staff performing needleless-connector disinfection following a time–motion paradigm using an electronic tool to document the observed needleless-connector access events and to measure needleless-connector antiseptic scrub times and dry times. Results: In total, 8 focus groups involving 28 nurses revealed access to the antiseptic product and lesser workload as best-practice facilitators of needleless-connector disinfection. Identified barriers were often the opposite of the facilitators, particularly the time required per needleless connector access using IPA and knowledge deficits regarding the need for disinfection between multiple needleless-connector accesses. From 36 observations, including a total of 48 access events, we determined that the mean scrub times were below the recommended times, especially for IPA (Table 1). Drying time after use of either antisepsis product was negligible. Conclusions: A lack of access to the disinfection product, emergency situations, and increased workload were perceived barriers to needleless-connector disinfection. Observed scrub times and drying times were shorter than recommended, much more so for IPA. These deficits in the performance of needleless-connector disinfection may increase the risk of CLABSI. Ongoing education and periodic competency evaluation of needleless-connector disinfection are needed to imbed and sustain best practices.
A short, effective therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could decrease barriers to implementation and uptake, reduce dropout, and ameliorate distressing symptoms in military personnel and veterans. This non-inferiority RCT evaluated the efficacy of 2-week massed prolonged exposure (MPE) therapy compared to standard 10-week prolonged exposure (SPE), the current gold standard treatment, in reducing PTSD severity in both active serving and veterans in a real-world health service system.
This single-blinded multi-site non-inferiority RCT took place in 12 health clinics across Australia. The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) at 12 weeks. 138 military personnel and veterans with PTSD were randomised. 71 participants were allocated to SPE, with 63 allocated to MPE.
The intention-to-treat sample included 138 participants, data were analysed for 134 participants (88.1% male, M = 46 years). The difference between the mean MPE and SPE group PTSD scores from baseline to 12 weeks-post therapy was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) −4.19 to +6.07]. The upper endpoint of the 95% CI was below +7, indicating MPE was non-inferior to SPE. Significant rates of loss of PTSD diagnosis were found for both groups (MPE 53.8%, SPE 54.1%). Dropout rates were 4.8% (MPE) and 16.9% (SPE).
MPE was non-inferior to SPE in significantly reducing symptoms of PTSD. Significant reductions in symptom severity, low dropout rates, and loss of diagnosis indicate MPE is a feasible, accessible, and effective treatment. Findings demonstrate novel methods to deliver gold-standard treatments for PTSD should be routinely considered.
The storming of the US Capitol building in January 2021 was a presidential attempt at a self-coup. To make the case, this article reviews elements of the Capitol assault and the events leading up to it, in light of the key conceptual components of a self-coup, and how those compare to attributes of other kinds of attacks on governments. The Trump self-coup will then be compared and contrasted empirically to other self-coups perpetrated by leaders. It is found that what separates successful self-coups from those that fail is whether the military backs the undertaking. Thus, a section is included on US military behaviour in response to Trump's attempts to gain military adherence for his political actions.
The mental health impact of the initial years of military service is an under-researched area. This study is the first to explore mental health trajectories and associated predictors in military members across the first 3–4 years of their career to provide evidence to inform early interventions.
This prospective cohort study surveyed Australian Defence personnel (n = 5329) at four time-points across their early military career. Core outcomes were psychological distress (K10+) and posttraumatic stress symptoms [four-item PTSD Checklist (PCL-4)] with intra-individual, organizational and event-related trajectory predictors. Latent class growth analyses (LCGAs) identified subgroups within the sample that followed similar longitudinal trajectories for these outcomes, while conditional LCGAs examined the variables that influenced patterns of mental health.
Three clear trajectories emerged for psychological distress: resilient (84.0%), worsening (9.6%) and recovery (6.5%). Four trajectories emerged for post-traumatic stress, including resilient (82.5%), recovery (9.6%), worsening (5.8%) and chronic subthreshold (2.3%) trajectories. Across both outcomes, prior trauma exposure alongside modifiable factors, such as maladaptive coping styles, and increased anger and sleep difficulties were associated with the worsening and chronic subthreshold trajectories, whilst members in the resilient trajectories were more likely to be male, report increased social support from family/friends and Australian Defence Force (ADF) sources, and use adaptive coping styles.
The emergence of symptoms of mental health problems occurs early in the military lifecycle for a significant proportion of individuals. Modifiable factors associated with wellbeing identified in this study are ideal targets for intervention, and should be embedded and consolidated throughout the military career.
Autism and autistic traits are risk factors for suicidal behaviour.
To explore the prevalence of autism (diagnosed and undiagnosed) in those who died by suicide, and identify risk factors for suicide in this group.
Stage 1: 372 coroners’ inquest records, covering the period 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017 from two regions of England, were analysed for evidence that the person who died had diagnosed autism or undiagnosed possible autism (elevated autistic traits), and identified risk markers. Stage 2: 29 follow-up interviews with the next of kin of those who died gathered further evidence of autism and autistic traits using validated autism screening and diagnostic tools.
Stage 1: evidence of autism (10.8%) was significantly higher in those who died by suicide than the 1.1% prevalence expected in the UK general alive population (odds ratio (OR) = 11.08, 95% CI 3.92–31.31). Stage 2: 5 (17.2%) of the follow-up sample had evidence of autism identified from the coroners’ records in stage 1. We identified evidence of undiagnosed possible autism in an additional 7 (24.1%) individuals, giving a total of 12 (41.4%); significantly higher than expected in the general alive population (1.1%) (OR = 19.76, 95% CI 2.36–165.84). Characteristics of those who died were largely similar regardless of evidence of autism, with groups experiencing a comparably high number of multiple risk markers before they died.
Elevated autistic traits are significantly over-represented in those who die by suicide.
This paper presents an experimental study of the interaction of turbulent spots with an initially laminar separation, using schlieren visualisation and dynamic measurements of surface heat transfer and pressure. The separation is generated on a blunt cylinder-flare body, tested at Mach 9, and entropy layer effects result in a boundary layer edge Mach number of 3.43 at separation. A single roughness element is used to produce isolated spots, defined such that separation collapse and re-establishment is completed before arrival of the next spot. On average the spot axial length, at the start of the interaction, is 2.5 times the separation length, growing to 6.8 times as the spot base passes the original reattachment position. As such the spot comprises a large perturbation. The local separation responds almost immediately with passage of the spot, so that the downstream region may be unaffected while the upstream part has already collapsed. Re-establishment of separation is slow, taking up to four times the total transit time of the spot. A basic model is presented to explore the transient wave processes during spot passage.
Marine-terminating glaciers lose mass through melting and iceberg calving, and we find that meltwater drainage systems influence calving timing at Helheim Glacier, a tidewater glacier in East Greenland. Meltwater feeds a buoyant subglacial discharge plume at the terminus of Helheim Glacier, which rises along the glacial front and surfaces through the mélange. Here, we use high-resolution satellite and time-lapse imagery to observe the surface expression of this meltwater plume and how plume timing and location compare with that of calving and supraglacial meltwater pooling from 2011 to 2019. The plume consistently appeared at the central terminus even as the glacier advanced and retreated, fed by a well-established channelized drainage system with connections to supraglacial water. All full-thickness calving episodes, both tabular and non-tabular, were separated from the surfacing plume by either time or by space. We hypothesize that variability in subglacial hydrology and basal coupling drive this inverse relationship between subglacial discharge plumes and full-thickness calving. Surfacing plumes likely indicate a low-pressure subglacial drainage system and grounded terminus, while full-thickness calving occurrence reflects a terminus at or close to flotation. Our records of plume appearance and full-thickness calving therefore represent proxies for the grounding state of Helheim Glacier through time.
Introduction to vectors in curved spaces, the exterior calculus, tensor densities, affine connections and Christoffel symbols, parallel transport and covariant derivatives, metric spaces, and the theory of curvature.