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Rapid or explosive heating of electrically conductive films has several applications, and the use of reactive laminates to increase output energy is an intriguing concept. Past studies have shown electrically heated aluminum/nickel (Al/Ni) nano-laminate films to augment this energy by an amount approximately equivalent to the expected heat of mixing between the two elements, which for most intermetallics is a significant fraction of the total heat of reaction (86% for Al/Ni). In this study, we investigate the use of sputtered aluminum/boron (Al/B) laminates to determine whether a similar increase, as measured by the velocity of an ejected flyer layer, occurs. However, observed velocities in any samples containing boron were 38% to 45% lower than samples without boron, despite much higher heats of reaction reported in the literature for Al/B. We attributed this reduction to the vaporization temperature of boron being much higher than that of Al, and because Al electrical resistivity at elevated temperatures was still much lower than boron, boron heating was less efficient as vaporized Al expanded and drove the ejected flyer. These results and analysis give insight into other reactive material combinations in which one of the constituents is an electrical insulator.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
In President Obama's words, the Democratic Party experienced a “shellacking” in the 2010 elections. In particular, the net loss of 63 House seats was the biggest midterm loss suffered by a party since 1938—the largest in the lifetimes of approximately 93% of the American population.
Samples with the stoichiometry (CaxY1−x)Ba2Cu4O8, x = 0, 0.1 were synthesized at P(O2) = 25 and 200 bar. High Resolution TEM images for the samples synthesized at 25 bar show a high density of planar defects as compared to almost defect free microstructure of Ca0.1Y0.9Ba2Cu4O8 synthesized at 200 bar. The intragrain critical current density of the high defect density samples is however about 100 times lower that that of Ca0.1Y0.9Ba2Cu4O8 synthesized at P(O2) = 200 bar.
Crystallographic and chemical analysis of the microstructures obtained by annealing a heavily deformed Ti-24Al-11 Nb alloy have been performed. The influence of the niobium distribution within the different phases present and the variation of degree of long range order caused by this distribution have been related to the deformation mechanisms leading to strain hardening at the early stages of deformation. In particular, slip band formation and twinning have been observed to occur within the (α2 phase according to the different degree of order measured.
Titanium trialuminide alloys suffer problems of intense segregation during solidification and extreme brittleness when subjected to tensile stresses. In this study, spray forming techniques have been used to obtain homogeneous materials of fine microstructure, containing various second phase particles, and the deformation behaviour of these materials examined over a range of temperatures.
The microstructure and deformation behaviour of an iron-modified titanium trialuminide with the L12 structure is reported here.Deformation mechanisms are interpreted by analysis of dislocation structures and further confirmation is obtained by activation volume measurements: the importance of Peierls effects at low temperatures and cross slip at high temperatures is shown. The material remains brittle in tension both at room temperature and at high temperatures: the second phase particles in the material are yet not present in sufficient volume fraction to greatly affect plastic behaviour.
Fe-35Al alloys containing various amounts of ZrB2 have been prepared by melt spinning and the microstructure and its stability examined. The mechanical properties are evaluated both on as cast materials as well as after high temperature heat treatments. The ZrB2 additions lead to a dramatic increase in hardness and strength. In addition, small amounts of ZrB2 lead to significant increases in ductility. Because the microstructure is fairly stable, these improvements in properties are maintained even after high temperature exposures.
Alloys with up to about 1%ZrB2 have the dispersoid particles arranged in an imperfect cellular microstructure after rapid solidification. The cell walls contain many fine particles and are efficient barriers against dislocation propagation. Strain occurs as dislocations escape through gaps in the imperfect cell walls at a stress level that is controlled by the size of these gaps. Ductility is improved since the deformation that results from such controlled strain progression through the material is much more uniform and large stress and strain concentrations are avoided.
The speciation of UO22+ and UO22+/ TBP mixtures has been investigated in solution and intercalated with the reference smectite clay SAz-1 using x-ray absorption, Raman, andluminescence spectroscopies. Neither aquated UO22+ nor its TBP complex undergoes any detectable changes in uranium oxidation state on intercalation. Further, at the pH values employed in this work, there is no evidence for hydrolysis of the uranium species to generate dimeric or higher order uranium oligomers. However, we do find indications that the structures of the solution complexes are altered on intercalation, particularly for the UO22+TBP system and for more dilute UO22+/aqueous systems. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that, at the loading levels used in this study, the uranyl species is interacting with two or more spectroscopically distinguishable sites on SAz-1.
KNbO3 possesses high nonlinear optical coefficients making it a promising material for frequency conversion of infrared light into the visible wavelength range using integrated optical devices. While epitaxial thin films of KNbO3 have previously been grown using ion beam sputtering, defects (i.e. grain boundaries, domains, surface roughness) in these films resulted in high optical losses and no measurable in-plane birefringence. Previous films were grown on MgO substrates, which have a >4% lattice mismatch with KNbO3. In the work reported here, we have grown films on MgO, MgA12O4, NdGaO3, and KTaO3 to investigate the role of lattice mismatch on the resulting film quality. Films have also been grown with and without oxygen ion assistance. The orientations, morphologies, and defects in the films were examined using x-ray diffraction and AFM to determine their relationships to the growth conditions and substrate lattice mismatch.
Recognition of seasonal trends in hospital infections may improve diagnosis, use of empirical therapy, and infection prevention interventions. There are very few data available regarding the seasonal variability of these infections. We quantified the seasonal variation in the incidences of hospital infection caused by common bacterial pathogens and estimated the association between temperature changes and infection rates.
A cohort of all adult patients admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center during the period from 1998 through 2005 was analyzed. Time-series analyses were used to estimate the association of the number of infections per month caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and enterococci with season and temperature, while controlling for long-term trends.
There were 218,594 admissions to the index hospital, and analysis of 26,624 unique clinical cultures that grew the organisms of interest identified increases in the mean monthly rates of infection caused by P. aeruginosa (28% of isolates recovered; P < .01), E. cloacae (46%; P < .01), E. coli (12%; P < .01), and A. baumannii (21%; P = .06). For each 10°F increase, we observed a 17% increase in the monthly rates of infection caused by P. aeruginosa (P = .01) and A. baumanii (P = .05).
Significantly higher rates of gram-negative infection were observed during the summer months, compared with other seasons. For some pathogens, higher temperatures were associated with higher infection rates, independent of seasonality. These findings have important implications for infection prevention, such as enhanced surveillance during the warmer months, and for choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy among hospitalized adults. Future, quasi-experimental investigations of gram-negative infection prevention initiatives should control for seasonal variation.