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Different manufacturers recommend different levels of disinfection for oxygen nipple and nut adaptors, also known as Christmas-tree adaptors (CTAs). We aimed to determine the bacterial contamination rates of CTAs before and after clinical use and whether disinfection wipes effectively eliminate bacteria from CTAs.
CTAs were swabbed for bacteria directly from the shipment box or after use in a medical intensive care unit to determine levels of contamination. CTAs were also inoculated in the laboratory with a variety of bacteria and disinfected with either 0.5% hydrogen peroxide (Oxivir 1) or 0.25% tetra-ammonium chloride with 44.50% isopropyl alcohol (Super Sani-Cloth), and the effectiveness of each wipe was determined by comparing the bacterial recovery before and after disinfection.
CTAs exhibit low levels of bacterial burden before and after clinical use. Both disinfecting wipes were effective at removing bacteria from the CTAs.
Low-level disinfection of CTAs is appropriate prior to redeployment in the clinical setting.
Giant miscanthus has the potential to move beyond cultivated fields and invade non-crop areas, but this can be overshadowed by aesthetic appeal and monetary value as a biofuel crop. Most research on giant miscanthus has focused on herbicide tolerance for establishment and production, rather than terminating an existing stand. This study was conducted to evaluate herbicide options for control or terminating a stand of giant miscanthus. In 2013 and 2014, field experiments were conducted on established stands of the giant miscanthus cultivars ‘Nagara’ and ‘Freedom’. Herbicides evaluated both years included glyphosate, hexazinone, imazapic, imazapyr, clethodim, fluazifop, and glyphosate + fluazifop. All treatments were applied in summer (June or July) and September. For both years, biomass reduction ranged from 85 to 100% when glyphosate was applied June/July at 4.5 or 7.3 kg ae ha-1. No other treatment applied at this timing provided more than 50% giant miscanthus biomass reduction one year after application. September applications of glyphosate were not consistent, with treatments in 2013 reducing biomass by 40% or less, while in 2014 at all rates provided ≥78% biomass reduction. Glyphosate applications in June/July was the only treatment to provide effective and consistent control of giant miscanthus one year after treatment.
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is used increasingly during resuscitation. The aim of this study was to assess whether combining POCUS and electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm findings better predicts outcomes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department (ED).
We completed a health records review on ED cardiac arrest patients who underwent POCUS. Primary outcome measurements included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge.
POCUS was performed on 180 patients; 45 patients (25.0%; 19.2%–31.8%) demonstrated cardiac activity on initial ECG, and 21 (11.7%; 7.7%–17.2%) had cardiac activity on initial POCUS; 47 patients (26.1%; 20.2%–33.0%) achieved ROSC, 18 (10.0%; 6.3%–15.3%) survived to admission, and 3 (1.7%; 0.3%–5.0%) survived to hospital discharge. As a predictor of failure to achieve ROSC, ECG had a sensitivity of 82.7% (95% CI 75.2%–88.7%) and a specificity of 46.8% (32.1%–61.9%). Overall, POCUS had a higher sensitivity of 96.2% (91.4%–98.8%) but a similar specificity of 34.0% (20.9%–49.3%). In patients with ECG-asystole, POCUS had a sensitivity of 98.18% (93.59%–99.78%) and a specificity of 16.00% (4.54%–36.08%). In patients with pulseless electrical activity, POCUS had a sensitivity of 86.96% (66.41%–97.22%) and a specificity of 54.55% (32.21%–75.61%). Similar patterns were seen for survival to admission and discharge. Only 0.8% (0.0–4.7%) of patients with ECG-asystole and standstill on POCUS survived to hospital discharge.
The absence of cardiac activity on POCUS, or on both ECG and POCUS together, better predicts negative outcomes in cardiac arrest than ECG alone. No test reliably predicted survival.
Simulation plays an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High-quality, simulation-based research will ensure its effective use. This study sought to summarize simulation-based research activity and its facilitators and barriers, as well as establish priorities for simulation-based research in Canadian emergency medicine (EM).
Simulation-leads from Canadian departments or divisions of EM associated with a general FRCP-EM training program surveyed and documented active EM simulation-based research at their institutions and identified the perceived facilitators and barriers. Priorities for simulation-based research were generated by simulation-leads via a second survey; these were grouped into themes and finally endorsed by consensus during an in-person meeting of simulation leads. Priority themes were also reviewed by senior simulation educators.
Twenty simulation-leads representing all 14 invited institutions participated in the study between February and May, 2018. Sixty-two active, simulation-based research projects were identified (median per institution = 4.5, IQR 4), as well as six common facilitators and five barriers. Forty-nine priorities for simulation-based research were reported and summarized into eight themes: simulation in competency-based medical education, simulation for inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology.
This study summarized simulation-based research activity in EM in Canada, identified its perceived facilitators and barriers, and built national consensus on priority research themes. This represents the first step in the development of a simulation-based research agenda specific to Canadian EM.
Wildlife is an essential component of all ecosystems. Most places in the globe do not have local, timely information on which species are present or how their populations are changing. With the arrival of new technologies, camera traps have become a popular way to collect wildlife data. However, data collection has increased at a much faster rate than the development of tools to manage, process and analyse these data. Without these tools, wildlife managers and other stakeholders have little information to effectively manage, understand and monitor wildlife populations. We identify four barriers that are hindering the widespread use of camera trap data for conservation. We propose specific solutions to remove these barriers integrated in a modern technology platform called Wildlife Insights. We present an architecture for this platform and describe its main components. We recognize and discuss the potential risks of publishing shared biodiversity data and a framework to mitigate those risks. Finally, we discuss a strategy to ensure platforms like Wildlife Insights are sustainable and have an enduring impact on the conservation of wildlife.
The cognitive process of worry, which keeps negative thoughts in mind and elaborates the content, contributes to the occurrence of many mental health disorders. Our principal aim was to develop a straightforward measure of general problematic worry suitable for research and clinical treatment. Our secondary aim was to develop a measure of problematic worry specifically concerning paranoid fears.
An item pool concerning worry in the past month was evaluated in 250 non-clinical individuals and 50 patients with psychosis in a worry treatment trial. Exploratory factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) informed the selection of scale items. IRT analyses were repeated with the scales administered to 273 non-clinical individuals, 79 patients with psychosis and 93 patients with social anxiety disorder. Other clinical measures were administered to assess concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with 75 participants. Sensitivity to change was assessed with 43 patients with psychosis.
A 10-item general worry scale (Dunn Worry Questionnaire; DWQ) and a five-item paranoia worry scale (Paranoia Worries Questionnaire; PWQ) were developed. All items were highly discriminative (DWQ a = 1.98–5.03; PWQ a = 4.10–10.7), indicating small increases in latent worry lead to a high probability of item endorsement. The DWQ was highly informative across a wide range of the worry distribution, whilst the PWQ had greatest precision at clinical levels of paranoia worry. The scales demonstrated excellent internal reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to change.
The new measures of general problematic worry and worry about paranoid fears have excellent psychometric properties.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Industry payments to physicians can present a conflict of interest. The Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates the disclosure of these financial relationships to increase transparency. Recent studies in other surgical specialties have shown that research productivity is associated with greater industry funding. In this study, we characterize the relationship between academic influence and industry funding among academic gynecologic oncologists. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Departmental websites were used to identify academic gynecologist oncologists and their demographic information. The Hirsch index (h-index) relates an author’s number of publications to number of times referenced by other publications, a validated measure of an author’s academic influence. This was obtained from the Scopus database. The Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services Open Payments online database was searched for all industry payments in 2017. The NIH Reporter online database was searched for active grants. Goodness of fit testing showed that all variables followed nonparametric distributions. Medians were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with post-hoc Dunn’s test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-six academic gynecologic oncologists were included in the analysis. In 2017, 89.7% of this group received industry funding totaling $41.4 million. Median industry funding was $453 [IQR $67-19684] and median h-index was 14 [IQR 8-26]. Only 8.1% of gynecologic oncologists were NIH grant recipients and they received significantly higher industry payments ($357 vs. 11,168, P<0.01). Gender and academic rank were not associated with industry funding. Gynecologic oncologists in the highest decile of industry funding received a median payment of $447,651[N=46, IQR $285,770 – 896,310] totaling $36.5 million. The median h-index for this top-earning decile was 23 [N=46, IQR 16.5-30.3]. When stratified by payment amount, median h index increased but only reached statistical significance in the highest cohort receiving >$100,000 (N = 63, P<0.05). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The majority of academic gynecologic oncologists receive industry funding although there are large variations in payments. Those receiving the largest payments are more likely to hold NIH grants and have greater academic influence.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients are increasingly using online materials to learn about gynecologic cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that 85-96% of patients with a gynecologic malignancy utilize the Internet as a health resource. Providers can refer patients to educational materials produced by major medical associations available on their websites. However, patient educational materials (PEMs) published by professional organizations from other surgical specialties have been shown to be difficult to read for the average American. The NIH and AMA recommend that PEMs be written between a sixth and eighth grade reading level. In this study, we assess the readability of online PEMs on gynecologic cancer published by major medical associations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Seven national medical association websites with PEMs on gynecologic malignancy were surveyed: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Center for Disease Control, Foundation for Women’s Cancer, National Cancer Institute, National Cervical Cancer Coalition, National Ovarian Cancer Coalition, and Society of Gynecologic Oncology. Online PEMs were identified and analyzed using five validated readability indices. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were performed to detect differences in readability between publishers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty PEMs were included in this analysis. Mean readability grade levels with standard deviation were: 11.3 (2.8) for Coleman-Liau index; 11.8 (3.2) for Flesch-Kincaid; 11.1 (1.2) for FORCAST formula; 12.5 (2.7) for Gunning FOG formula; 12.1 (2.6) for New Dale-Chall formula; and 13.5 (2.5) for SMOG formula. Overall, PEMs were written at a mean 12th grade reading level. Only 4.3% of articles were written at an 8th grade reading level or below. ANOVA demonstrated a significant difference in readability between publishing associations (p<0.01). PEMs from the Center for Disease Control had a mean 10th grade reading level and were significantly lower than all other organizations. PEMs from The Foundation for Women’s Cancer had a mean 13th grade reading level and were significantly higher than most other organizations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Gynecologic oncology PEMs available from major medical association are written well above the recommended sixth to eight grade reading level. Simplifying PEMs may improve patient understanding of their disease and facilitate physician-patient communication.
This case-based guide covers 100 gynecologic problems commonly encountered in office practice settings, from the simple to the complex. It encourages evidence-based care and incorporates up-to-date guidance on evaluation and management in office practice. Clinical problems are discussed in a clear, case-based format. The book integrates current guidelines and recommendations, supplemented with carefully-researched and vetted expert opinion for situations for which no guidelines exist. Each gynecologic problem is assessed through a brief case presentation followed by an in-depth discussion with visual aids. Question and answer sections feature teaching points. Cases and discussions are detailed enough to guide practice, yet remain focused and concise, with each case designed to be read in the time available when seeing a patient in clinical practice. An invaluable reference guide for gynecologists, family physicians, internal medicine providers, and other women's health care providers who offer office-based gynecologic care.