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The native rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus mackerrasae) and the invasive rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) occur in eastern Australia. The species identity of A. mackerrasae remained unquestioned until relatively recently, when compilation of mtDNA data indicated that A. mackerrasae sensu Aghazadeh et al. (2015b) clusters within A. cantonensis based on their mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). To re-evaluate the species identity of A. mackerrasae, we sought material that would be morphologically conspecific with A. mackerrasae. We combined morphological and molecular approaches to confirm or refute the specific status of A. mackerrasae. Nematodes conspecific with A. mackerrasae from Rattus fuscipes and Rattus rattus were collected in Queensland, Australia. Morphologically identified A. mackerrasae voucher specimens were characterized using amplification of cox1 followed by the generation of reference complete mtDNA. The morphologically distinct A. cantonensis, A. mackerrasae and A. malaysiensis are genetically distinguishable forming a monophyletic mtDNA lineage. We conclude that A. mackerrasae sensu Aghazadeh et al. (2015b) is a misidentified specimen of A. cantonensis. The availability of the mtDNA genome of A. mackerrasae enables its unequivocal genetic identification and differentiation from other Angiostrongylus species.
Significant investment in new capacities for experimental research at high temperatures and pressures have provided new levels of understanding about the physical properties of carbon in fluids and melts, including its viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density. This chapter reviews the physical properties of carbon-bearing melts and fluids at high temperatures and pressures and highlights remaining unknowns left to be explored. The chapter also reviews how the remote sensing of the inaccessible parts of the Earth via various geophysical techniques – seismic shear wave velocity, attenuation, and electromagnetic signals of mantle depths – can be reconciled with the potential presence of carbon-bearing melts or fluids. Supplemental online material is available for this chapter at www.cambridge.org/9781108477499#resources.
The interplay of the personal and the social is discussed with regard to McEwan’s output as a whole, but with particular reference to some of its more marginal texts, such as Amsterdam. Much of McEwan’s writing has rightly been seen as focused on public issues. For example, Amsterdam is a social satire; the oratorio text Or Shall We Die? aims to influence public debate about nuclear weapons. However, McEwan is also a chronicler of the personal and physical. For example, The Ploughman’s Lunch is about personal corruption as well as national mendacity. Indeed, throughout McEwan’s work, the personal and the public interweave. Interpersonal relations are also central to McEwan’s work. A typology of such relations is suggested based on closeness and disjunction, concealment and intrusion. Examples are drawn from a wide range of McEwan’s work. The motif of transvestism is given prominence.
Astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology have changed out of all recognition over the last 100 years. The IAU has provided an essential means of fostering international collaboration in these disciplines including times of international tension. Developments will be highlighted which have profoundly changed our understanding and insight into the workings of our Universe.
Little is known about the change processes in gambling disorder-specific cognitive therapy (CT) and exposure therapy (ET). These therapies are underpinned by the cognitive approach (i.e., restructuring gambling cognitions) and the psychobiological approach (i.e., elimination of gambling urges) to treating problem gambling. Here, piecewise-linear modelling is used in a secondary analysis of randomised trial data for a CT group (n = 44) versus an ET group (n = 43) with the aim to open a discourse on how individuals respond to CT and ET relative to theory. Measures were administered between therapy sessions (average = 6.2 per individual) across 18 weeks for gambling urge (GUS) and gambling cognitions (GRCS). Results indicated the ET group had a stronger reduction in GUS (p < .01) in the first 4 weeks of treatment. Between 4–12 weeks, improvement in GUS (p < .01) and GRCS (p = .02) was more rapid in the CT group. Both groups experienced comparable improvements from 12–18 weeks. These findings have implications for further treatment development, including a combined cognitive and exposure approach that is flexibly adapted to the patient. A larger trial is needed to formally establish change processes and identify differences in problem gambler subgroups. This would provide therapists capacity to offer each patient a clear direction and an expedited pathway to their preferred outcome.
Major depressive disorder is a common diagnosis associated with a high burden of disease that has proven to be highly heterogeneous and unreliable. Treatments currently available demonstrate limited efficacy and effectiveness. New drug development is urgently required but is likely to be hindered by diagnostic limitations.
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
We aimed to develop and test a community resilience tabletop exercise to assess progress in community resilience and to provide an opportunity for quality improvement and capacity building.
A tabletop exercise was developed for the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) project by using an extended heat wave scenario with health and infrastructure consequences. The tabletop was administered to preparedness only (control) and resilience (intervention) coalitions during the summer of 2014. Each exercise lasted approximately 2 hours. The coalitions and LACCDR study team members independently rated each exercise to assess 4 resilience levers (partnership, engagement, self-sufficiency, and education). Resilience coalitions received more detailed feedback in the form of recommendations for improvement.
The resilience coalitions performed the same or better than the preparedness coalitions on the partnership and self-sufficiency levers. Most coalitions did not have enough (both quantity and type) of the partner organizations needed for an escalating heat wave or changing conditions or enough engagement of organizations representing at-risk populations. Coalitions also lacked educational materials to cover topics as far ranging as heat to power outages to psychological impacts of disaster.
A tabletop exercise can be used to stress and test resilience-based capacities, with particular attention to a community’s ability to leverage a range of partnerships and other assets to confront a slowly evolving but multifactorial emergency. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:484–488)
Optical interferometry is a powerful technique to make images on angular scales hundreds of times smaller than is possible with the largest telescopes. This concise guide provides an introduction to the technique for graduate students and researchers who want to make interferometric observations and acts as a reference for technologists building new instruments. Starting from the principles of interference, the author covers the core concepts of interferometry, showing how the effects of the Earth's atmosphere can be overcome using closure phase, and the complete process of making an observation, from planning to image reconstruction. This rigorous approach emphasizes the use of rules-of-thumb for important parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratios, requirements for sampling the Fourier plane and predicting image quality. The handbook is supported by web resources, including the Python source code used to make many of the graphs, as well as an interferometry simulation framework, available at www.cambridge.org/9781107042179.
Fringe visibility measurements and derived observables such as the power spectrum and bispectrum are subject to both systematic and random errors. Chapter 3 showed how a systematic reduction in the fringe contrast can arise from the effects of atmospheric seeing. This chapter concentrates on the main sources of random errors or noise.
Noise on fringe parameters can arise both from the effects of atmospheric seeing and also from noise sources associated with measuring the light intensity levels in the fringe pattern. The main aim of this chapter is to derive robust ‘rule-of-thumb’ estimates for the noise levels in a given observation. These rules of thumb can then be used to determine which noise sources are dominant and whether random errors or systematic errors provide the fundamental limitation to accuracy in any given case.
5.1.1 Power spectrum
As discussed in Chapter 3, the spatial and temporal wavefront phase fluctuations which occur due to atmospheric seeing cause the mean fringe contrast to decrease as the apertures go from being point-like to being comparable in size to the Fried parameter of the seeing r0, and as the exposure times go from being infinitesimal to being comparable to the coherence time of seeing t0. Under these conditions the fringe contrast will also fluctuate on an exposureto-exposure basis. Exposure times and aperture sizes need to be as large as possible in order to get more light, so it is helpful to be able to quantify what the trade-off between these experimental variables and the atmospheric noise level is.
An idea for how the noise varies as a function of integration time can be obtained using the ‘random-walk’ model for the visibility reduction used in Section 3.3.2. In this model, the coherent flux is given by a random walk consisting of n steps so that
where F0 is the coherent flux in a single ‘step’ and Φk is the fringe phase at step k. The mean power spectrum is therefore given by