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Antibiotics are among the most common medications prescribed in nursing homes. The annual prevalence of antibiotic use in residents of nursing homes ranges from 47% to 79%, and more than half of antibiotic courses initiated in nursing-home settings are unnecessary or prescribed inappropriately (wrong drug, dose, or duration). Inappropriate antibiotic use is associated with a variety of negative consequences including Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), adverse drug effects, drug–drug interactions, and antimicrobial resistance. In response to this problem, public health authorities have called for efforts to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36–54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months.
Non-demented older adults (n = 446) underwent Aβ neuroimaging and BDNF Val66Met genotyping. EM and HV were assessed at baseline and 18 months later. Fasted blood samples were obtained from each participant at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Aβ PET neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ– or Aβ+.
At baseline, Aβ+ adults showed worse EM impairment and lower serum mBDNF levels relative to Aβ- adults. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not affect serum mBDNF, EM, or HV at baseline. When considered over 18-months, compared to Aβ– Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Val homozygotes showed significant decline in EM and HV but not serum mBDNF. Similarly, compared to Aβ+ Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Met carriers showed significant decline in EM and HV over 18-months but showed no change in serum mBDNF.
While allelic variation in BDNF Val66Met may influence Aβ+ related neurodegeneration and memory loss over the short term, this is not related to serum mBDNF. Longer follow-up intervals may be required to further determine any relationships between serum mBDNF, EM, and HV in preclinical AD.
Autobiographical memory (ABM), personal semantic memory (PSM), and autonoetic consciousness are affected in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but their relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are unclear.
Forty-five participants (healthy controls (HC) = 31, MCI = 14) completed the Episodic ABM Interview and a battery of memory tests. Thirty-one (HC = 22, MCI = 9) underwent β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fourteen participants (HC = 9, MCI = 5) underwent one imaging modality.
Unlike PSM, ABM differentiated between diagnostic categories but did not relate to AD biomarkers. Personal semantic memory was related to neocortical β-amyloid burden after adjusting for age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Autonoetic consciousness was not associated with AD biomarkers, and was not impaired in MCI.
Autobiographical memory was impaired in MCI participants but was not related to neocortical amyloid burden, suggesting that personal memory systems are impacted by differing disease mechanisms, rather than being uniformly underpinned by β-amyloid. Episodic and semantic ABM impairment represent an important AD prodrome.
Herein we provide an introduction and overview to the field of risk management for interested non-specialists, with a particular focus on the data and information requirements. Financial institutions produce enormous amounts of data. The challenge for risk managers is finding those data most useful for the task at hand, which might involve analyzing market, credit, operational, liquidity or systemic risk. All data are not equal, and their interpretation has been the subject of much debate, especially after the recent financial crisis. Some have asked whether data provide guidance or distraction in understanding financial risks. This chapter irst discusses some fundamental distinctions to keep in mind relative to all risk indicators used when actually managing risk. It closes with a brief tour of some of the core risk modeling tools in current practice, with an emphasis on their data and information needs.
Data versus information
The value and pitfalls of “actual” data
The modern world, characterized by pervasive computing power and massive electronic storage, is awash in data. As far back as 2007, Google was reportedly maintaining 100 exabytes of data (100 EB = 1 × 1020 bytes = 1 billion GB), largely to index the far more voluminous material on the Internet. Overall global storage capacity is measured in zettabytes (1 ZB = 1 × 1021 bytes; see Hilbert and López, 2012). In their raw and unorganized form, however, the data that surround us do not constitute information.
It is believed that when patients present to the emergency department (ED) with recent-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter (RAFF), controlling the ventricular rate before cardioversion improves the success rate. We evaluated the influence of rate control medication and other variables on the success of cardioversion.
This secondary analysis of a medical records review comprised 1,068 patients with RAFF who presented to eight Canadian EDs over 12 months. Univariate analysis was performed to find associations between predictors of conversion to sinus rhythm including use of rate control, rhythm control, and other variables. Predictive variables were incorporated into the multivariate model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with successful cardioversion.
A total of 634 patients underwent attempted cardioversion: 428 electrical, 354 chemical, and 148 both. Adjusted ORs for factors associated with successful electrical cardioversion were use of rate control medication, 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.74); rhythm control medication, 0.28 (95% CI 0.15-0.53); and CHADS2 score > 0, 0.43 (95% CI 0.15-0.83). ORs for factors associated with successful chemical cardioversion were use of rate control medication, 1.29 (95% CI 0.82-2.03); female sex, 2.37 (95% CI 1.50-3.72); and use of procainamide, 2.32 (95% CI 1.43-3.74).
We demonstrated reduced successful electrical cardioversion of RAFF when patients were pretreated with either rate or rhythm control medication. Although rate control medication was not associated with increased success of chemical cardioversion, use of procainamide was. Slowing the ventricular rate prior to cardioversion should be avoided.
The Canadian MOST satellite is a unique platform for observations of bright transiting exoplanetary systems. Providing nearly continuous photometric observations for up to 4 weeks, MOST can produce important observational data to help us learn about the properties of exosolar planets. We review our current observations of HD 209458 and HD 189733 with implications for the albedo and our progress towards detecting reflected light from an exoplanet.
To prospectively compare somatosensory evoked potentials, electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for detection of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy (CEA).
Somatosensory evoked potentials and EEG recordings were attempted in 156 consecutive CEAs and TCD was also attempted in 91 of them. Recordings from all three modalities were obtained for at least 10 minutes before CEA, during CEAand for at least 15 minutes after CEA. Somatosensory evoked potentials peak-to-peak amplitude decrease of >50%, EEG amplitude decrease of >75%, and ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity (mean VMCAi) decrease >75% persisting for the entire period of internal carotid artery occlusion were individually considered to be diagnostic of cerebral ischemia. Clinical neurological examination was performed immediately prior to surgery and following recovery from general anaesthesia.
Somatosensory evoked potentials, EEG, and TCD were successfully obtained throughout the entire period of internal carotid artery occlusion in 99%, 95%, and 63% of patients respectively. Two patients (1.3%) suffered intraoperative cerebral infarction detected by clinical neurological examination and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. Somatosensory evoked potentials accurately predicted intraoperative cerebral infarction in both instances without false negatives or false positives, EEG yielded one false negative result and no false positive results and VMCAi one true positive, four false positive and no false negative results. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound detection of emboli did not correlate with postoperative neurological deficits. Nevertheless the sensitivity and specificity of each test was not significantly different than the others because of the small number of disagreements between tests.
A >50% decrease in the cortically generated P25 amplitude of the median somatosensory evoked potentials, which persisted during the entire period of internal carotid artery occlusion, appears to be the most reliable method of monitoring for intraoperative ischemia in our hands because it accurately detected both intraoperative strokes with no false positive or false negative results.
Profound and rapid changes in the costs and risks of international trade are now widely acknowledged to be a potent source of domestic political conflict. By altering the relative prices of goods available from world markets, these changes alter the rewards that flow to different factors of production from different economic activities. These distributional consequences of changing levels of trade, in turn, alter the configuration of interests in the domestic political economy, strain existing political alignments, and enable the construction of new political coalitions. Thus, global changes in the economy, such as the transportation and telecommunications revolutions in the nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries or the collapse of international trade and finance during the interwar years, will have global consequences as they reverberate within and through the domestic politics of all countries that trade on world markets.
Epitaxy of CoSi2 layers on Si crystal surfaces can be strongly influenced by growing appropriate template layers. The electronic structure of thin (∼7Å) epitaxial CoSi2 films on Si(100) has been studied with angle-resolved photoemission to investigate atomic bonding in the layers and at their boundaries. Most Co atoms in the layers are in a CoSi2-like environment, including those Co atoms near the free surface. Cobalt atoms at the Si-CoSi 2 interface seem to have fewer Si neighbors.
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