To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the USA, western Washington (WWA) and the Alaska (AK) Interior are two regions where maritime and continental climates, high latitude and cropping systems necessitate early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both regions aim to increase the production of hard spring bread wheat for human consumption to support regional agriculture and food systems. The Nordic region of Europe has a history of breeding for early maturing spring wheat and also experiences long daylengths with mixed maritime and continental climates. Nordic wheat also carries wildtype (wt) NAM-B1, an allele associated with accelerated senescence and increased grain protein and micronutrient content, at a higher frequency than global germplasm. Time to senescence, yield, protein and mineral content were evaluated on 42 accessions of Nordic hard red spring wheat containing wt NAM-B1 over 2 years on experimental stations in WWA and the AK Interior. Significant variation was found by location and accession for time to senescence, suggesting potential parental lines for breeding programmes targeting early maturity. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that decreased time to senescence correlated negatively with grain yield and positively with grain protein, iron and zinc content. Breeding for early maturity in these regions will need to account for this potential trade-off in yield. Nordic wt NAM-B1 accessions with early senescence yet with yields similar to regional checks are reported. Collaboration among alternative wheat regions can aid in germplasm exchange and varietal development as shown here for the early maturing trait.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Increasingly, ambulance services offer alternatives to transfer to the emergency department (ED), when this is better for patients. The introduction of electronic health records (EHR) in ambulance services is encouraged by national policy across the United Kingdom (UK) but roll-out has been variable and complex.
Electronic Records in Ambulances (ERA) is a two-year study which aims to investigate and describe the opportunities and challenges of implementing EHR and associated technology in ambulances to support a safe and effective shift to out of hospital care, including the implications for workforce in terms of training, role and clinical decision-making skills.
Our study includes a scoping review of relevant issues and a baseline assessment of progress in all UK ambulance services in implementing EHR. These will inform four in-depth case studies of services at different stages of implementation, assessing current usage, and examining context.
The scoping review identified themes including: there are many perceived potential benefits of EHR, such as improved safety and remote diagnostics, but as yet little evidence of them; technical challenges to implementation may inhibit uptake and lead to increased workload in the short term; staff implementing EHR may do so selectively or devise workarounds; and EHR may be perceived as a tool of staff surveillance.
Our scoping review identified some complex issues around the implementation of EHR and the relevant challenges, opportunities and workforce implications. These will help to inform our fieldwork and subsequent data analysis in the case study sites, to begin early in 2017. Lessons learned from the experience of implementing EHR so far should inform future development of information technology in ambulance services, and help service providers to understand how best to maximize the opportunities offered by EHR to redesign care.
Windrow burning is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass populations are common in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of burning standing stubble and narrow windrows on the survival of Italian ryegrass seed on the soil surface and to determine the amount of crop residue remaining after both practices. Italian ryegrass emergence was 63, 48, and 1% for the nonburned check, burned standing stubble, and burned windrow treatments, respectively. Crop-residue dry weights were 9.94, 5.69, and 5.79 Mg ha−1 for these same treatments. Windrow burning can be an effective tactic in an integrated weed management strategy for Italian ryegrass control in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and northern Idaho.
Biological control has been an important tactic in the management of Canadian forests for over a century, but one that has had varied success. Here, we review the history of biological control programmes using vertebrate and invertebrate parasitoids and predators against insects in Canadian forests. Since roughly 1882, 41 insect species have been the target of biological control, with approximately equal numbers of both native and non-native species targeted. A total of 161 species of biological control agents have been released in Canadian forests, spanning most major orders of insects, as well as mites and mammals. Biological control has resulted in the successful suppression of nine pest species, and aided in the control of an additional six species. In this review, we outline the chronological history of major projects across Canadian forests, focussing on those that have had significant influence for the development of biological control. The historical data clearly illustrate a rise and fall in the use of biological control as a tactic for managing forest pests, from its dominance in the 1940s and 1950s to its current low level. The strategic implementation of these biological control programmes, their degree of success, and the challenges faced are discussed, along with the discipline’s shifting relationship to basic science and the environmental viewpoints surrounding its use.
The transition to the diverse and complex biosphere of the Ediacaran and early Paleozoic is the culmination of a complex history of tectonic, climate, and geochemical development. Although much of this rise occurred in the middle and late intervals of the Neoproterozoic Era (1000–541 million years ago [Ma]), the foundation for many of these developments was laid much earlier, during the latest Mesoproterozic Stenian Period (1200–1000 Ma) and early Neoproterozoic Tonian Period (1000–720 Ma). Concurrent with the development of complex ecosystems, changes in the composition, configuration, and tectonic interaction between continental plates have been proposed as major shapers of both climate and biogeochemical cycling, but there is little support in the geologic record for overriding tectonic controls. Biogeochemical evidence, however, suggests that an expansion of marine oxygen concentrations may have stabilized nutrient cycles and created more stable environmental conditions under which complex, eukaryotic life could gain a foothold and flourish. The interaction of tectonic, biogeochemical, and climate processes, as described in this paper, resulted in the establishment of habitable environments that fostered the Ediacaran and early Phanerozoic radiations of animal life and the emergence of complex, modern-style ecosystems.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
The present volume represents one of the most recent additions to a burgeoning number of publications in the field of L2 motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009; Murray, Gao, & Lamb, 2011). As in most of these, ideas of the self-concept and identity in learner motivation are clearly visible. However, a welcome aspect of this book is its focus on the local context of language learning and how this interacts with both the learner's concept of self and the motivation to pursue his or her language studies.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
In primates, the cortex adjoining the rostral border of V2 has been variously interpreted as belonging to a single visual area, V3, with dorsal V3 (V3d) representing the lower visual quadrant and ventral V3 (V3v) representing the upper visual quadrant, V3d and V3v constituting separate, incomplete visual areas, V3d and ventral posterior (VP), or V3d being divided into several visual areas, including a dorsomedial (DM) visual area, a medial visual area (M), and dorsal extension of VP (or VLP). In our view, the evidence from V1 connections strongly supports the contention that V3v and V3d are parts of a single visual area, V3, and that DM is a separate visual area along the rostral border of V3d. In addition, the retinotopy revealed by V1 connection patterns, microelectrode mapping, optical imaging mapping, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri) mapping indicates that much of the proposed territory of V3d corresponds to V3. Yet, other evidence from microelectrode mapping and anatomical connection patterns supports the possibility of an upper quadrant representation along the rostral border of the middle of dorsal V2 (V2d), interpreted as part of DM or DM plus DI, and along the midline end of V2d, interpreted as the visual area M. While the data supporting these different interpretations appear contradictory, they also seem, to some extent, valid. We suggest that V3d may have a gap in its middle, possibly representing part of the upper visual quadrant that is not part of DM. In addition, another visual area, M, is likely located at the DM tip of V3d. There is no evidence for a similar disruption of V3v. For the present, we favor continuing the traditional concept of V3 with the possible modification of a gap in V3d in at least some primates.
In a theory of justice Rawls distinguishes “natural duties” from obligations: natural duties are incumbent upon each of us unconditionally, whereas obligations are voluntarily incurred. He also distinguishes natural duties from duties that are attached to institutional offices or other social positions. Natural duties are moral requirements. As the institutions and social positions to which institutional and social duties attach may be morally defensible or indefensible, they do not necessarily possess any moral force (TJ 98f.).
Rawls acknowledges a diverse set of natural duties, including “the duty of helping another when he is in need or jeopardy . . . ; the duty not to harm or injure another; . . . the duty not to cause unnecessary suffering” and the duty of mutual respect (TJ 98, 297).Within the context of a theory of justice, however, the most important natural duty requires us “to comply with and do our share in just institutions when they exist and apply to us” and “to assist in the establishment of just arrangements when they do not exist” (TJ 293f.).
Rawls holds that the parties in the “original position” would endorse this natural duty of justice as “the easiest and most direct way” “to secure the stability of just institutions” (TJ 295). By contrast, the principle of fairness, which in effect supplements the duty of justice for those who “gain political office” and “take advantage of the opportunities offered by the constitutional system,” provides less support for just institutions (TJ 302f.).This represents a departure from his earlier position, which was that mere receipt of benefits from mutually beneficial and just social arrangements grounds amoral obligation of obedience to law (CP 117–128).
Rawls defines conscientious refusal as “noncompliance with a more or less direct legal injunction or administrative order” (TJ 323). This contrasts with civil disobedience, which he deines as “a public, nonviolent, conscientious yet political act contrary to law usually done with the aim of bringing about a change in the law or policies of the government” (TJ 320). Conscientious refusal thus differs – or, strictly speaking, may differ – from civil disobedience in several ways (TJ 324–325).
Unlike civil disobedience, conscientious refusal is not defined as a public act, though the government may know of it. But unlawful omissions may be publicized and their rationales explained, asThoreau did of his tax resistance (Thoreau 1973 , 63–90, 313). Some conscientious refusers may avoid publicity, as Thoreau wisely did in aiding escaped slaves (Harding 1982, 314–317). Rawls calls the latter cases “conscientious evasion” (TJ 324).
A second difference is that the motivating principles of conscientious refusal need not be political; theymight, for example, be religious. But they can be political, as Thoreau’s indeed were. A third difference is that the motivating principles may not be shared with other members of the community – though they might be. A fourth difference is that a principled omission need not be part of an effort to achieve reform. The point of aiding escaped slaves, for example, is to ensure their freedom, not the abolition of chattel slavery. Thoreau’s tax resistance indicates, however, that conscientious refusal can be part of a line of conduct that seeks reform, e.g. by encouraging others to do the same.
Rawls’s theory of justice primarily concerns the morality of institutions and secondarily the morality of conduct under them. A central theme of the latter is that “We are not to gain from the cooperative efforts of others without doing our fair share” (TJ 96.) This idea, its implications and Rawls’s terminology evolve as his theory of justice develops. In 1964 Rawls presented what he then called “the duty of fair play” as the ground of a widely applicable “moral obligation to obey the law” (CP 117–128), whereas in 1971 “the principle of fairness” is said to ground an obligation of obedience to law that applies to only a limited subset of citizens (TJ 308–312). These changes are related to Rawls’s distinguishing “obligations,” based on fairness and incurred by voluntary actions, from “natural duties,” which obtain independently of anyone’s voluntary acts (TJ 96).
In “Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play,” Rawls says that fair play calls for compliance with the rules of an institution when (1) the institution is a “mutually beneicial and just scheme of social cooperation”; (2) compliance with its rules involves some sacriice (if only some restriction on one’s liberty); (3) the relevant beneits are created by general compliance with its rules; (4) free-riding is possible because it is possible for some to enjoy the benefits without complying; and (5) one has “accepted” such beneits (CP 122f.). In A Theory of Justice, Rawls says that the principle of fairness calls for compliance with institutional rules under similar conditions, except that Rawls modiies the last condition so that (5) one is under an obligation to do what the rules require if one has not merely accepted (perhaps only passively received) such beneits but welcomes them and intends to continue accepting them or has actually sought them (TJ 301f.).
Civil disobedience receives Rawls’s most careful and extended consideration in A Theory of Justice. It is there deined as “a public, nonviolent, conscientious yet political act contrary to law usually done with the aim of bringing about a change in the law or policies of the government” (TJ 320). It “is engaged in openly with fair notice” (TJ 321) and involves a “willingness to accept the legal consequences of one’s conduct” (TJ 322).
This is as narrow a conception of civil disobedience as one might find, and Rawls acknowledges that it excludes some acts that have usually been regarded as civil disobedience. An example is Thoreau’s tax refusal, protesting his state’s complicity in unconscionable federal policies. Rawls classiies Thoreau’s act and many other kinds of principled disobedience as “conscientious refusal,” which he treats separately (TJ 323–326, 331–335).
Rawls’s theory of civil disobedience relates directly to the principal project of TJ, which is to identify “the principles of justice that would regulate a well-ordered society” (TJ 8). The basic institutions of such a society satisfy the principles of justice, its members knowingly share that conception of justice, and they are morally committed to maintain institutions that respect its principles. That is the setting for what Rawls terms “ideal theory” (TJ 397). One of Rawls’s central concerns is the stability of a well-ordered society.