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We observed the 2 July 2019 total solar eclipse with a variety of imaging and spectroscopic instruments recording from three sites in mainland Chile: on the centerline at La Higuera, from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and from La Serena, as well as from a chartered flight at peak totality in mid-Pacific. Our spectroscopy monitored Fe X, Fe XIV, and Ar X lines, and we imaged Ar X with a Lyot filter adjusted from its original H-alpha bandpass. Our composite imaging has been compared with predictions based on modeling using magnetic-field measurements from the pre-eclipse month. Our time-differenced sites will be used to measure motions in coronal streamers.
A number of thin silicon films are prepared through ultra-high-vacuum evaporation on optical quality fused quartz substrates with different growth temperatures. Through an analysis of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results, a phase transition, from amorphous-to-crystalline, is found corresponding to increases in the growth temperature. The corresponding Raman spectra are also observed to change their form as the films go through this phase transition. Using a Raman peak decomposition process, this phase transition is then quantitatively characterized through the determination of the amount of intermediate-range order and the crystalline volume fraction for the various growth temperatures considered in this analysis. The possible device consequences of these results are then commented upon.
The latent structure of the proposed ICD-11 post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been explored.
To investigate the latent structure of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD
Confirmatory factor analyses using data from structured clinical
interviews administered to injury patients (n = 613) 6
years post-trauma. Measures of disability and psychological quality of
life (QoL) were also administered.
Although the three-factor model implied by the ICD-11 diagnostic criteria
fit the data well, a two-factor model provided equivalent, if not
superior, fit. Whereas diagnostic criteria based on this two-factor model
resulted in an increase in PTSD point prevalence (5.1%
v. 3.4%; z = 2.32,
P<0.05), they identified individuals with similar
levels of disability (P = 0.933) and QoL
(P = 0.591) to those identified by the ICD-11
Consistent with theorised reciprocal relationships between
re-experiencing and avoidance in PTSD, these findings support an
alternative diagnostic algorithm requiring at least two of any of the
four re-experiencing/avoidance symptoms and at least one of the two
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as Septra, is a commonly encountered and prescribed antibiotic in emergency department patients. The side effects associated with TMP/SMX are generally mild and self-limited, but serious side effects, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and drug-induced aseptic meningitis, have been reported. We discuss the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with the signs and symptoms of meningeal inflammation after being prescribed TMP/SMX 3 days earlier for an abscess with cellulitis.
We present comprehensive quantitative analysis of Raman spectra in two-(Si/SiGe superlattices) and three-(Si/SiGe cluster multilayers) dimensional nanostructures. We find that the Raman spectra baseline is due to the sample surface imperfection and instrumental response associated with the stray light. The Raman signal intensity is analyzed, and Ge composition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The local sample temperature and thermal conductivity are calculated, and the spectrum of longitudinal acoustic phonons is explained.
We report the degradation of low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from Si/SiGe three-dimensional cluster morphology nanostructures under continuous photoexcitation. The PL intensity initially decreases slowly for about 15 minutes, and then decreases rapidly, until only ∼ 10% of the original PL intensity remains. A complete recovery of the PL requires restoring the sample temperature to ∼ 300K. We propose that a slow accumulation of charge in SiGe clusters enhances the rate of Auger recombination and results in the observed PL degradation.
Strain engineering in composition-controlled Si-Si/Ge nanocluster multilayers with high germanium content (~ 50%) is achieved by varying thicknesses of Si/SiGe layers and studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL spectra show reduction in strained silicon energy bandgap and a splitting presumably associated with partial removal of heavy hole-light hole degeneracy in SiGe valence band. Time-resolved PL measurements performed under different excitation wavelengths show dramatically different PL lifetimes, ranging from ~ 2 μs to 10 ns and an unusually high PL quantum efficiency. The results are explained by using the Si/SiGe interface recombination model, which is supported by ultra-high resolution transmission and analytical electron microscopy measurements.
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to track changes in total body water (TBW). Accurate TBW estimations can be influenced by both methodological and biological factors. One methodological variation that contributes to BIS TBW errors is the electrode placement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reproducibility and validity of fixed-distance electrode placements (5 cm) with the standard single-site electrode placements. Twenty-nine subjects (fifteen men and fourteen women) participated in the reproducibility study, while sixty-nine subjects (thirty-three men and thirty-six women) participated in the validity study. The reproducibility study included two measurements that were taken 24 h apart, while the validity study consisted of a 12-week exercise intervention with measurements taken at weeks 1 and 12. TBW was estimated using BIS and 2H techniques. Reproducibility results indicated that fixed-distance electrodes reduced the day-to-day standard error of the measurement in men (from 1·13 to 0·81 litres) but not in women (0·47 litres). sem values were lower for women than for men, suggesting that BIS TBW estimates are sex dependent. Validity results produced similar accurate findings (mean difference < 0·21 litres). However, fixed-distance electrodes improved delta TBW errors (mean difference improvements>0·04 litres in men, women, and men and women combined). When tracking changes in TBW, fixed-distance electrodes may reduce reproducibility errors and allow for smaller changes to be detected. However, the reduction of reproducibility errors may be greater for men than for women. Therefore, reproducibility calculations should be based on the sex of the sample population.
Three-dimensional SiGe nanostructures grown on Si using molecular beam epitaxy exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the important spectral range of 1.3–1.6 μm. At a higher level of photo-excitation, thermal quenching of the PL intensity is suppressed and the previously accepted type II energy band alignment at Si/SiGe cluster hetero-interfaces no longer controls radiative carrier recombination. Instead, a dynamic type I energy band alignment governs the strong decrease in carrier radiative lifetime and further increase in the luminescence quantum efficiency. In contrast to the strongly temperature dependent and slow radiative carrier recombination found in bulk Si, Auger mediated PL emanating from the nanometer-thick Si layers is found to be nearly temperature independent with a radiative lifetime approaching 10−8 s, which is comparable to that found in direct band gap III-V semiconductors. Such nanostructures are thus potentially useful as CMOS compatible light emitters and in optical interconnects.
Germanium nanocrystals (NCs) were formed by in-situ thermal annealing of an amorphous Ge layer deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a thin SiO2 layer on Si(001). The Ge NCs were then capped in situ with a thin layer of amorphous Si to prevent oxidation. For the present range of particle sizes (2.5 to 60 nm), the NC photoluminescence (PL) appeared primarily as a wide near-infrared band peaked near 800 meV. The peak energy of the PL band reflects the average NC size and its shape depends on the NC size distribution. Using both the k·p and tight binding theoretical models, we have analyzed the PL spectrum in terms of the NC size distribution required to reproduce the observed asymmetric band shape, which includes, for the smaller diameter NCs, a band gap enlargement due to quantum confinement. The observed size distribution determined from transmission electron microscopy analysis allowed the determination of the nonlinear increase in the PL quantum efficiency with decreasing NC diameter. This implies that, given a good theoretical description of the system, it is possible to evaluate the size distribution of semiconductor NCs from their PL energy dependence.
We first present an analysis of the band line-up in the case of SiGe/Si quantum wells and in the case of SiGe/Si self-assembled islands. The conduction and valence band diagrams are obtained from a 30 band k.p Hamiltonian which allows to describe simultaneously conduction and valence band states. The strain field is obtained from a microscopic valence force field theory. The band edge alignment is strongly dependent on the input parameters for this heterosystem. We determine the average valence band offset from photoluminescence measurements of heterostructures grown on relaxed SiGe buffer layers. A type II band line-up is calculated for all Ge compositions in the case of two-dimensional quantum wells and SiGe/Si self-assembled islands. The 30-band formalism allows the determination of the near-infrared interband recombination energy as a function of the self-assembled island structural parameters. We then present recent results obtained by embedding SiGe/Si self-assembled islands in two-dimensional photonic crystals. The photoluminescence of GeSi islands acts as an internal probe to characterize the optical properties of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystals designed for the near-infrared spectral range. Cavities, defect-free photonic crystals operated at the second Bragg order and two-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated on top of one-dimensional Bragg mirrors (2D + 1D) are described. We show that, in the case of 2D +1D structures, we can control the quality factor of optical modes at the second Bragg order by matching the resonance conditions and controlling the thickness of the layers. Photonic crystals with pure Ge layers are finally described.
We find that in SiGe clusters grown on Si using Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) growth mode, (i) photoluminescence (PL) spectra, (ii) PL lifetime and (iii) PL thermal quench activation energies exhibit strong dependence on the excitation intensity. Under PL excitation intensity increasing from 1 to 104 W/cm2, the PL spectra exhibit blue shift from below Ge bandgap up to ∼970 meV. The PL lifetime shows strong dependence on the excitation wavelength, decreasing from 20 μs at ∼0.8 eV to 200 ns at ∼ 0.9 eV. The process of PL thermal quench has two clearly distinguished activation energies. At low temperature, small (∼15 meV) and excitation-independent activation energy is attributed to exciton thermal dissociation. At higher temperature, excitation-dependent PL thermal quench activation energy (increasing from ∼ 120 to 340 meV as excitation intensity increases) is found, and it is attributed to hole redistribution via tunneling and/or thermal ionization over the Si/SiGe valence band energy barrier.
The time resolved and DC photoconduction characteristics of Si nanowire devices are described. Si nanowires with diameters ranging from 20-100 nm were grown using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism under standard conditions and devices were fabricated in a back-gate field effect transistor (FET) configuration using simple photolithography. It is shown that under certain biasing conditions, illumination with light from light emitting diodes with wavelengths ranging from 480 nm to 625 nm causes changes in current as high as 4%. On the other hand, illumination by a broadband incandescent source causes a ∼4.1% percent change in current. Photoconductive decay curves show bi- and tri-exponential behavior, indicative of multiple potential recombination mechanisms occurring within the Si nanowire devices. p-n doped Si nanowires show similar behavior. Studies under various drain and gate voltages provides insight into the proposed mechanism. It is argued that the Shottky barrier plays a strong role in the observed photoconduction process in these wires, as do transitions involving surface and deep level trap states.
Reliable fabrication of high-speed, delta-doped transistors and better understanding of two-dimensional metal-insulator transitions can be achieved using silicon molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). However, this fabrication technique should be performed with care, avoiding dopant segregation on epitaxial Si surfaces and improving the doping efficiency. Here we report comprehensive structural and optical investigations of MBE-grown Si/delta-doped Si:B multilayer structures. Measurements of Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman scattering, optical reflection and photoluminescence are performed. Our results indicate nearly metallic conductivity at room temperature with metal-insulator phase transition near T ∼100 K. In contrast to recently reported data, no enhancement of photoluminescence at room temperature is found. Occasionally, a few samples in specific areas exhibit strong photoluminescence at 1.4-1.6 micron attributed to structural defects, most likely due to B segregation.
We examine the nanostructural properties of Si/Si1−xGex island superlattices with 0.37 < x < 0.56 grown at 620-640 °C by molecular beam epitaxy. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that during growth Ge atoms migrate towards the center of the large islands to maintain epitaxial growth and that the most regular structures are obtained at higher Ge composition when the built-in strain is also higher. High-resolution x-ray reciprocal space mapping shows that these heterostructures remain pseudomorphic and that the undulations are aligned along  directions and exhibit a long-range coherence and vertical correlation as revealed by the presence of strong satellites in a wave vector direction parallel to the surface. Raman spectra of these samples exhibit the usual Ge-Ge, Si-Ge and Si-Si vibrational modes. When compared with planar Si/Si1−xGex superlattices the Ge-Ge and Si-Ge Raman peaks are shifted to lower frequencies indicating an average alloy composition that is approximately x = 0.1 less than the nominal values, which is in general agreement with analytical TEM.
The peak energy of photoluminescence (PL) from an undecylenic acid functionalized porous Si demonstrated a large PL red-shift (∼ 75 nm) during 2.5 hours of protein incubation in our previous work.  Here we present a similar in-situ PL study of surface functionalized planar Si (Si:COOH). The PL of Si:COOH exhibited a 5 nm red-shift in its peak frequency and an approximately 10% drop in its intensity after incubation in a protein solution. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization was carried out upon the Si:COOH sample for which we observed the PL red-shift. The infrared absorption spectra showed clear evidence of protein adsorption on Si:COOH. This correlation study between the PL peak energy and the vibrational spectrum provided strong evidence that the observed red-shift was due to the formation of semiconductor-protein (Si:COOH:BSA) complexes.
Infrared vibrational spectroscopy in an attenuated total reflection geometry has been employed to investigate the presence of organic and inorganic thin layers on Si-wafer surfaces. Three different processes were compared for surface contaminant removal; microwave plasma, UV-ozone, and a piranha solution cleaning. The CH vibrations at 2928 and 2856 cm-1 characteristic of organic contaminants were monitored before and after each cleaning procedure to determine how well it removed surface contaminants. We found that native oxide removal from the Si surface should only be carried out after a cleaning essay. We observed that surface oxide removal exposed a hydrophobic bare Si surface, attracting organic molecules present in solution or the ambient. A large increase of the CH vibrational signature was observed for a Si wafer after an HF dip. A combination of plasma cleaning followed by UV-Ozone treatment was found the most effective one for Si wafer cleaning. We were able to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning methods, hydrogen surface passivation and oxide removal/regrowth.