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Increasing weed control costs and limited herbicide options threaten vegetable crop profitability. Traditional inter-row mechanical cultivation is very effective between crop rows. However, weed control within the crop rows is necessary to establish the crop and prevent yield loss. Currently, many vegetable crops require hand weeding to remove weeds within the row left by traditional cultivation and herbicides. Intelligent cultivators have come into commercial use to remove intra-row weeds and reduce cost of hand weeding. Intelligent cultivators currently on the market, such as the Robovator, use pattern recognition to detect the crop row. These cultivators do not differentiate crops and weeds and do not work well in high weed populations. One approach to differentiation is to place a machine detectable mark or signal on the crop, i.e., the crop has the mark and the weed does not, facilitating weed/crop differentiation. Lettuce and tomato plants were marked with labels and topical markers, then cultivated with an intelligent cultivator programed to identify the markers. Results from field trials in marked tomato and lettuce found that the intelligent cultivator removed 90% more weeds from tomato and 66% more weeds from lettuce than standard cultivators without reducing yields. Accurate crop and weed differentiation described here resulted in a 45 to 48% reduction in hand-weeding time per hectare.
Pity the poor soul who, more than twenty years ago, would have predicted that hard-core street cops would be sitting down with serious violent offenders, telling them politely to cease and desist, asking them what they and their families need, and going to extreme lengths to keep them safe and out of jail. Exactly that has in fact become standard practice with police officers nationally; beyond that, and not coincidentally, that standard practice is increasingly understood to work very well indeed. The “focused deterrence” strategies piloted in Boston in the mid-1990s and implemented since then in a range of other jurisdictions are racking up impressive results in preventing violent crime and have become essentially mainstream. What was once seen as at best innovative – but more often to be fringe bordering on the bizarre, as in the face-to-face meetings between authorities and offenders that the Boston strategy invented – is now standard practice and routine not just for special interventions but as a philosophy of policing: it is, one hears police chiefs say, “what we do.”
The United States has a persistent and intolerably high rate of gun violence, and that violence is heavily concentrated in poor minority neighborhoods, where young black men can experience homicide rates of 520 per 100,000 people (against 5.4 per 100,000 for the nation overall).
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Making replication studies widely conducted and published requires new incentives. Academic awards can provide such incentives by highlighting the best and most important replications. The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) has led such efforts by recently introducing the OHBM Replication Award. Other communities can adopt this approach to promote replications and reduce career cost for researchers performing them.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and an increasingly common infection in children in both hospital and community settings. Between 20% and 30% of pediatric patients will have a recurrence of symptoms in the days to weeks following an initial infection. Multiple recurrences have been successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), though the body of evidence in pediatric patients is limited primarily to case reports and case series. The goal of our study was to better understand practices, success, and safety of FMT in children as well as identify risk factors associated with a failed FMT in our pediatric patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This multicenter retrospective analysis included 373 patients who underwent FMT for CDI between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2017 from 18 pediatric centers. Demographics, baseline characteristics, FMT practices, C. difficile outcomes, and post-FMT complications were collected through chart abstraction. Successful FMT was defined as no recurrence of CDI within 60 days after FMT. Of the 373 patients in the cohort, 342 had known outcome data at two months post-FMT and were included in the primary analysis evaluating risk factors for recurrence post-FMT. An additional six patients who underwent FMT for refractory CDI were excluded from the primary analysis. Unadjusted analysis was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Pearson χ2 test, or Fisher exact test where appropriate. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to determine independent predictors of success. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age of included patients was 10 years (IQR; 3.0, 15.0) and 50% of patients were female. The majority of the cohort was White (89.0%). Comorbidities included 120 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 14 patients who had undergone a solid organ or stem cell transplantation. Of the 336 patients with known outcomes at two months, 272 (81%) had a successful outcome. In the 64 (19%) patients that did have a recurrence, 35 underwent repeat FMT which was successful in 20 of the 35 (57%). The overall success rate of FMT in preventing further episodes of CDI in the cohort with known outcome data was 87%. Unadjusted predictors of a primary FMT response are summarized. Based on stepwise logistic regression modeling, the use of fresh stool, FMT delivery via colonoscopy, the lack of a feeding tube, and a lower number of CDI episodes before undergoing FMT were independently associated with a successful outcome. There were 20 adverse events in the cohort assessed to be related to FMT, 6 of which were felt to be severe. There were no deaths assessed to be related to FMT in the cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The overall success of FMT in pediatric patients with recurrent or severe CDI is 81% after a single FMT. Children without a feeding tube, who receive an early FMT, FMT with fresh stool, or FMT via colonoscopy are less likely to have a recurrence of CDI in the 2 months following FMT. This is the first large study of FMT for CDI in a pediatric cohort. These findings, if confirmed by additional prospective studies, will support alterations in the practice of FMT in children.
It has been hypothesized that there are significant dissolved organic matter (DOM) pools in sea-ice systems, although measurements of DOM in sea ice have only rarely been made. The significance of DOM for ice-based productivity and carbon turnover therefore remains highly speculative. DOM within sea ice from the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, Antarctica, in 1994 and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, in 1992 and 1997 was investigated. Measurements were made on melted sea-ice sections in 1994 and 1997 and in sea-ice brines in 1992. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations in melted ice cores were up to 1.8 and 0.78 mM, respectively, or 30 and 8 times higher than those in surface water concentrations, respectively. However, when concentrations within the brine channel/pore space were calculated from estimated brine volumes, actual concentrations of DOC in brines were up to 23.3 mM and DON up to 2.2 mM, although mean values were 1.8 and 0.15 mM, respectively. There were higher concentrations of DOM in warm, porous summer second-year sea ice compared with colder autumn first-year ice, consistent with the different biological activity supported within the various ice types. However, in general there was poor correlation between DOC and DON with algal biomass and numbers of bacteria within the ice. The mean DOC/DON ratio was 11, although again values were highly variable, ranging from 3 to highly carbon-enriched samples of 95. Measurements made on a limited dataset showed that carbohydrates constitute on average 35% of the DOC pool, with highly variable contributions of 1−99%.
It is well established that during sea-ice formation, crystals aggregate into a solid matrix, and dissolved sea-water constituents, including inorganic nutrients, are rejected from the ice matrix. However, the behaviour of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during ice formation and growth has not been studied to date. DOM is the primary energetic substrate for microbial heterotrophic activity in sea water and sea ice, and therefore it is at the base of the trophic fluxes within the microbial food web. The aim of our study was to compare the behaviour of DOM and inorganic nutrients during formation and growth of sea ice. Experiments were conducted in a large indoor ice-tank facility (Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Germany) at −15°C. Three 1 m3 tanks, to which synthetic sea water, nutrients and dissolved organic compounds (diatom-extracted DOM) had been added, were sampled over a period of 5 days during sea-ice formation. Samples were collected throughout the experiment from water underlying the ice, and at the end from the ice as well. Brine was obtained from the ice by centrifuging ice cores. Inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were substantially enriched in brine in comparison to water and ice phases, consistent with the processes of ice formation and brine rejection. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also enriched in brine but was more variable and enriched in comparison to a dilution line. No difference in bacteria numbers was observed between water, ice and brine. No bacteria growth was measured, and this therefore had no influence on the measurable DOC levels. We conclude that the incorporation of dissolved organic compounds in newly forming ice is conservative. However, since the proportions of DOC in the brine were partially higher than those of the inorganic nutrients, concentrating effects of DOC in brine might be different compared to salts.
Claims for poetry's distinctiveness often rely on comparisons with prose. Charles Bernstein writes that ‘in prose you start with the world / and find the words to match; in poetry you start / with the words and find the world in them’. For example, William Carlos Williams wrote that where the purpose of prose is ‘to clarify and enlighten the understanding’, poetry is concerned with ‘the perfection of new forms as additions to nature’. Finally, Geoffrey Leech wrote that ‘Obtrusive irregularity (poetic deviation) and obtrusive regularity (parallelism) account for most of what is characteristic of poetic language’. The comparison with prose is implicit.
I want to suggest another way of thinking about poetry's distinctiveness. Poetry can be distinguished by two interlinked assumptions: that poets and readers can inhabit other bodies; and that form and rhythm can facilitate that habitation. Sometimes the other body is the poet's own; sometimes it is a body that he or she imagines. Poetry is where we learn and know what ethical demands feel like. Twentieth-century British poetry can be read, at least in part, as a narrative of bodily habitation that moves from beliefs in a representatively national body to progressive disillusionment with physical agency.
The career of F.T. P rince was contemporaneous with this body narrative and his relative distance from major poetic groupings and trends enabled his poetry to contribute to the narrative while offering an unillusioned commentary upon it. This chapter argues that Prince's engagement with the larger narrative of national bodies is visible in many of his more substantial poems and sequences.
I am not of course suggesting that this bodily narrative is the case with all twentieth-century poems but it is the case with a surprising number: from T.S. E liot's ‘Prufrock’ to Erin Moure's O Cidadan, from Rupert Brooke to Jenny Joseph, from absent-bodied elegies to poems celebrating public occasions. Why should this be so? In poems where the poet writes ‘I’, we are receiving a direct invitation to feel as him or her. In poems where other bodies are described, bodies become sites of politics, communication, etc. The body becomes the ultimate objective correlative.
Dual-coated barium titanate (BT) particles were prepared using dopamine (DP) in conjunction with bromine (Br) in order to enhance the dielectric constant of silicone rubber (SR) composites containing evenly distributed BT particles. The results showed that both DP and Br were deposited on the BT particles. The dielectric constant of the SR/BT composite was significantly increased from 3.6 to 4.7 at 1 kHz with the addition of BT modified with dopamine (DP–BT). Moreover, the dielectric constant further rose to 4.9 at 1 kHz when the DP–BT particle was grafted with bromine (Br–DP–BT).
Benthic habitat composition is a key factor that structures assemblages of coral reef fishes. However, natural and anthropogenic induced disturbances impact this relationship. This study investigates the link between benthic habitat composition and fish functional groups in four countries in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Benthic composition of 32 sites was quantified visually from percentage cover of hard and soft corals, rubble, turf, fleshy and crustose coralline algae. At each site, abundance of 12 coral-associated fish functional groups in 50 × 5 m transects was determined. Cluster analysis characterized reefs based on benthic cover and revealed five habitat types (A, B, C, D and E) typified by decreasing cover of hard corals, increasing cover of turf and/or fleshy algae and differences in benthic diversity. Habitat type A was present in all four countries. Other habitats types showed geographic affiliations: notably Comoros sites clustered in either habitats B or E, northern Madagascar had B, C and D type habitats, whereas sites in central Tanzania and northern Mozambique had habitats D and E. Fish functional groups showed significant linkages with some habitat types. The abundances of corallivores, invertivores, detritivores and grazers were higher in habitat B, whereas planktivores and small excavators showed lower abundances in the same habitat. These linkages between benthic habitat types and fish functional groups are important in informing priority reefs that require conservation and management planning.
Radiocarbon activity, He concentrations, and other geochemical parameters were measured in groundwater from the confined Black Creek (BC) and Upper Cape Fear (UCF) aquifers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. 14C ages adjusted for geochemical and diffusion effects ranged from 400 to 21,900 BP in the BC, and 13,400 to 26,000 BP in the underlying UCF; ages increased coastward in both aquifers. Long-term average linear groundwater velocity is about 2.5 m/yr for the BC, and somewhat larger for the UCF. Aquifer-aquitard exchange is an important influence on the DIC concentration, 14C activity, and estimated age of aquifer groundwater. Accounting for this exchange in 14C age calculations places the groundwater samples with the lowest estimated recharge temperatures nearest in time to the last glacial maximum. Traditional geochemical correction models that do not account for aquifer-aquitard exchange significantly overestimate groundwater age. He concentration in groundwater varies with both age and stratigraphic position. Dissolved He data provide strong evidence of upward vertical He transport through the study aquifers; data from the UCF are broadly consistent with the pattern expected for a confined aquifer receiving a concentrated, localized He flux from below (based on a previously published model for this situation), in this case most likely from crystalline bedrock. He has potential as an indicator of groundwater age in the study aquifers, if interpreted within an appropriate analytical framework that includes the observed strong vertical transport. δ18O in the oldest groundwater is enriched (relative to modern groundwater) by 1 to 1.2‰, the opposite of the δ18O depletion found in many old groundwaters but consistent with the enrichment found in groundwater in this age range in Georgia and Florida.
We aimed to determine the frequency of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes and high-level mupirocin resistance among MRSA isolates before and after the introduction of a chlorhexidine (CHG) daily bathing intervention in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU).
Retrospective cohort study (2005–2012)
A large tertiary-care center
Patients admitted to SICU who had MRSA surveillance cultures of the anterior nares
A random sample of banked MRSA anterior nares isolates recovered during (2005) and after (2006–2012) implementation of a daily CHG bathing protocol was examined for qacA/B genes and high-level mupirocin resistance. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was also performed.
Of the 504 randomly selected isolates (63 per year), 36 (7.1%) were qacA/B positive (+) and 35 (6.9%) were mupirocin resistant. Of these, 184 (36.5%) isolates were SCCmec type IV. There was a significant trend for increasing qacA/B (P=.02; highest prevalence, 16.9% in 2009 and 2010) and SCCmec type IV (P<.001; highest prevalence, 52.4% in 2012) during the study period. qacA/B(+) MRSA isolates were more likely to be mupirocin resistant (9 of 36 [25%] qacA/B(+) vs 26 of 468 [5.6%] qacA/B(−); P=.003).
A long-term, daily CHG bathing protocol was associated with a change in the frequency of qacA/B genes in MRSA isolates recovered from the anterior nares over an 8-year period. This change in the frequency of qacA/B genes is most likely due to patients in those years being exposed in prior admissions. Future studies need to further evaluate the implications of universal CHG daily bathing on MRSA qacA/B genes among hospitalized patients.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
Clinical databases in congenital and paediatric cardiac care provide a foundation for quality improvement, research, policy evaluations and public reporting. Structured audits verifying data integrity allow database users to be confident in these endeavours. We report on the initial audit of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) clinical registry.
Materials and methods
Participants reviewed the entire registry to determine key fields for audit, and defined major and minor discrepancies for the audited variables. In-person audits at the eight initial participating centres were conducted during a 12-month period. The data coordinating centre randomly selected intensive care encounters for review at each site. The audit consisted of source data verification and blinded chart abstraction, comparing findings by the auditors with those entered in the database. We also assessed completeness and timeliness of case submission. Quantitative evaluation of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness of case submission is reported.
We audited 434 encounters and 29,476 data fields. The aggregate overall accuracy was 99.1%, and the major discrepancy rate was 0.62%. Across hospitals, the overall accuracy ranged from 96.3 to 99.5%, and the major discrepancy rate ranged from 0.3 to 0.9%; seven of the eight hospitals submitted >90% of cases within 1 month of hospital discharge. There was no evidence for selective case omission.
Based on a rigorous audit process, data submitted to the PC4 clinical registry appear complete, accurate, and timely. The collaborative will maintain ongoing efforts to verify the integrity of the data to promote science that advances quality improvement efforts.