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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Silk and carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide, graphene, and carbon nanotubes, have complementary mechanical properties that feature superior toughness and strength, respectively. Different strategies have been devoted to developing silk/carbon nanocomposites, but challenges remain to fully integrate the mechanical advantages of these two components into one synergistic material system. In this article, we provide a critical summary of structure–mechanics relationships in silk/carbon nanocomposites and highlight the impact of the interaction between silk and carbon nanomaterials on mechanical properties of the hybrid materials. We describe the challenges involved and directions for future designs of silk/carbon nanocomposites.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and an increasingly common infection in children in both hospital and community settings. Between 20% and 30% of pediatric patients will have a recurrence of symptoms in the days to weeks following an initial infection. Multiple recurrences have been successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), though the body of evidence in pediatric patients is limited primarily to case reports and case series. The goal of our study was to better understand practices, success, and safety of FMT in children as well as identify risk factors associated with a failed FMT in our pediatric patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This multicenter retrospective analysis included 373 patients who underwent FMT for CDI between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2017 from 18 pediatric centers. Demographics, baseline characteristics, FMT practices, C. difficile outcomes, and post-FMT complications were collected through chart abstraction. Successful FMT was defined as no recurrence of CDI within 60 days after FMT. Of the 373 patients in the cohort, 342 had known outcome data at two months post-FMT and were included in the primary analysis evaluating risk factors for recurrence post-FMT. An additional six patients who underwent FMT for refractory CDI were excluded from the primary analysis. Unadjusted analysis was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Pearson χ2 test, or Fisher exact test where appropriate. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to determine independent predictors of success. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age of included patients was 10 years (IQR; 3.0, 15.0) and 50% of patients were female. The majority of the cohort was White (89.0%). Comorbidities included 120 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 14 patients who had undergone a solid organ or stem cell transplantation. Of the 336 patients with known outcomes at two months, 272 (81%) had a successful outcome. In the 64 (19%) patients that did have a recurrence, 35 underwent repeat FMT which was successful in 20 of the 35 (57%). The overall success rate of FMT in preventing further episodes of CDI in the cohort with known outcome data was 87%. Unadjusted predictors of a primary FMT response are summarized. Based on stepwise logistic regression modeling, the use of fresh stool, FMT delivery via colonoscopy, the lack of a feeding tube, and a lower number of CDI episodes before undergoing FMT were independently associated with a successful outcome. There were 20 adverse events in the cohort assessed to be related to FMT, 6 of which were felt to be severe. There were no deaths assessed to be related to FMT in the cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The overall success of FMT in pediatric patients with recurrent or severe CDI is 81% after a single FMT. Children without a feeding tube, who receive an early FMT, FMT with fresh stool, or FMT via colonoscopy are less likely to have a recurrence of CDI in the 2 months following FMT. This is the first large study of FMT for CDI in a pediatric cohort. These findings, if confirmed by additional prospective studies, will support alterations in the practice of FMT in children.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
The moment conditions or estimating equations for instrumental variables quantile regression involve the discontinuous indicator function. We instead use smoothed estimating equations (SEE), with bandwidth h. We show that the mean squared error (MSE) of the vector of the SEE is minimized for some h > 0, leading to smaller asymptotic MSE of the estimating equations and associated parameter estimators. The same MSE-optimal h also minimizes the higher-order type I error of a SEE-based χ2 test and increases size-adjusted power in large samples. Computation of the SEE estimator also becomes simpler and more reliable, especially with (more) endogenous regressors. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate all of these superior properties in finite samples, and we apply our estimator to JTPA data. Smoothing the estimating equations is not just a technical operation for establishing Edgeworth expansions and bootstrap refinements; it also brings the real benefits of having more precise estimators and more powerful tests.
The rate of transportation, introduction, dissemination, and spread of nonnative species is increasing despite growing global awareness of the extent and impact of biological invasions. Effective policies are needed to prevent an increase in the significant negative environmental and economic impacts caused by invasive species. Here we explore this issue in the context of the history of invasion and subsequent regulation of cacti introduced to South Africa. We consider seven approaches to restricting trade by banning the following: (1) species already invasive in the region, (2) species invasive anywhere in the world, (3) species invasive anywhere in the world with a climate similar to the target region, (4) genera containing invasive species, (5) growth forms associated with invasiveness, (6) cacti with seed characteristics associated with invasiveness, and (7) the whole family. We evaluate each approach on the basis of the availability and complexity of information required for implementation, including the cost of the research needed to acquire such information, the likely numbers of false positives and false negatives, the likely degree of public acceptance, and the costs of implementation. Following a consultative process, we provide recommendations for how to regulate nonnative cacti in South Africa. The simplest option would be to ban all cacti, but available evidence suggests that most species pose negligible risk of becoming invasive, making this option unreasonable. The other extreme—reactively regulating species once they are invasive—would incur significant control costs, likely result in significant environmental and economic impacts, and limit management goals (e.g., eradication might be unfeasible). We recommended an intermediate option—the banning of all genera containing invasive species. This recommendation has been partly incorporated in South African regulations. Our study emphasizes the importance of scientific research, a legal framework, and participation of stakeholders in assessments. This approach builds awareness, trust, and support, and ensures that all interests are reflected in final regulations, making them easier to implement and enforce.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Jeffery et al. characterize the egocentric/allocentric distinction as discrete. But paradoxically, much of the neural and behavioral evidence they adduce undermines a discrete distinction. More strikingly, their positive proposal – the bicoded map hypothesis – reflects a more complex interplay between egocentric and allocentric coding than they acknowledge. Properly interpreted, their proposal about three-dimensional spatial representation contributes to recent work on embodied cognition.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Minimizing the inherent conflict between protecting fauna and flora and accommodating the needs of the local communities is one of the greatest challenges facing protected area (PA) management in developing countries of the world. Allowing pastoralists access to PAs and their resources remains a contentious issue in southern Kenya, where retaliatory killing of African lions (Panthera leo) by Maasai pastoralists has caused a steep decline in the lion population, threatening local extinction. Previous studies that have shown that local people often have negative attitudes toward PAs; here PA policy during times of hardship is linked to attitudes toward lions and behavioural intentions. Different access policies to grazing inside Tsavo and Nairobi National Parks during the 2008/2009 drought influenced Maasai attitudes toward lions and their propensity to kill them. A semi-structured questionnaire (n = 206) and a multivariate model examine the relative importance of PA access and 11 additional predictors on individuals’ attitudes and reported inclination to kill lions. Access for livestock to PAs, benefits from wildlife and higher education were associated with positive attitudes toward lions and a lower reported propensity to kill. The success of lion conservation in Maasailand may depend upon recognizing and accommodating pastoralists’ inherent vulnerability to drought-induced livestock mortality.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Living neuronal cells present active mechanical structures which evolve with cellular growth and changes in the cell microenvironment. Detailed knowledge of various mechanical parameters such as cell stiffness or adhesion forces and traction stresses generated during axonal extension is essential for understanding the mechanisms that control neuronal growth, development and repair. Here we present a combined Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)/Fluorescence Microscopy approach for obtaining systematic, high-resolution elasticity and fluorescent maps for live neuronal cells. This approach allows us to simultaneously image and apply controllable forces to neurons, and also to monitor the real time dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton. We measure how the stiffness of neurons changes both during axonal growth and upon chemical modification of the cell, and identify the cytoskeletal components most responsible for the changes in cellular elasticity. This is accomplished by identifying cellular components with unique elastic signatures, and tracking those components over time within healthy cells or within cells treated to disrupt selective components.
As marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being utilised as a tool for fishery
management, their impact on the food web needs to be fully understood. However, little is
known about the effect of MPAs on fish assemblages, especially in the presence of
different life history and ecological traits. Modelling the observed changes in fish
population structures may provide a mechanistic understanding of fish assemblage dynamics.
In addition, modelling allows a quantitative estimate of MPA spill-over. To achieve this
purpose, we adapted an existing ecosystem model, OSMOSE (Object-oriented simulator of
marine biodiversity exploitation), to the specific case of the presence of fish with
multiple life histories. The adapted model can manage 4 main categories of life history
identified in an estuary MPA: fish that (1) spend their entire life cycle locally, (2) are
present only as juveniles, (3) enter the area as juveniles and stay permanently except
during reproduction periods, which occur outside the estuary, and (4) are present
occasionally and for a short time for foraging purposes. To take into account these
specific life-history traits, the OSMOSE code was modified. This modelling approach was
developed in the context of the Bamboung Bolong MPA, located in a mangrove area in the
Sine-Saloum Delta, Senegal. This was the ideal case to develop our approach as there has
been scientific monitoring of the fish population structure inside the MPA before fishery
closure, providing a reference state, and continuous monitoring since the closure.
Ecologically similar species were pooled by trophic traits into 15 groups that represented
97% of the total biomass. Lower trophic levels (LTL) were represented by 6 compartments.
The biomass of the model species was calibrated to reproduce the reference situation
before fishery closure. Model predictions of fish assemblage changes after fishery closure
corresponding to the Bamboung MPA creation scenario were compared to field observations;
in most cases the model reproduces observed changes in biomass (at least in direction). We
suggest the existence of a “sanctuary effect”, that was not taken into account in the
model, this could explain the observed increase in biomass of top predators not reproduced
by the model. Finally, the annual MPA fish spill-over was estimated at 11 tons (~33% of
the fish biomass) from the model output, mainly due to diffusive effects.