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The Sargur Group has been considered to be the oldest group (>3.0 Ga) in the Archaean sequence of the Dharwar Craton in south India, whereas the rocks of the Dharwar Supergroup are younger (between 3.0 and 2.55 Ga). The supracrustal units of the Sargur Group were deposited during the Archaean period. The Banavara quartzite forms part of the supracrustal Sargur Group and contains significant amounts of chromian spinel (Cr-spinel). Here, U–Pb and Hf isotopes of detrital zircons are integrated with compositional data and X-ray refinement parameters for Cr-spinels to decipher the provenance of the metasediments. Zircons show an age spectrum from 3.15 to 2.50 Ga, and juvenile Hf isotopic compositions (ϵHf = +0.8 to +6.4) with model ages between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga. Major- and trace-element contents of the Cr-spinels do not resemble those in the Sargur ultramafic rocks, but resemble well-characterized Archaean anorthosite-hosted chromites. Cr-spinel trace-element signatures indicate that they have undergone secondary alteration or metamorphism. X-ray refinement parameters for the Cr-spinels also resemble the anorthosite-hosted chromites. We conclude that the detrital minerals were probably derived from gneissic and anorthositic rocks of the Western Dharwar Craton, and that the Sargur Group sequences have experienced a younger (2.5 Ga) metamorphic overprint.
This study examined the efficacy of attention bias modification training (ABMT) for the treatment of depression.
In this randomized clinical trial, 145 adults (77% female, 62% white) with at least moderate depression severity [i.e. self-reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-SR) ⩾13] and a negative attention bias were randomized to active ABMT, sham ABMT, or assessments only. The training consisted of two in-clinic and three (brief) at-home ABMT sessions per week for 4 weeks (2224 training trials total). The pre-registered primary outcome was change in QIDS-SR. Secondary outcomes were the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) and anhedonic depression and anxious arousal from the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ). Primary and secondary outcomes were administered at baseline and four weekly assessments during ABMT.
Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, relative to assessment-only, active ABMT significantly reduced QIDS-SR and HRSD scores by an additional 0.62 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008, d = −0.57) and 0.74 ± 0.31 (p = 0.021, d = −0.49) points per week. Similar results were observed for active v. sham ABMT: a greater symptom reduction of 0.44 ± 0.24 QIDS-SR (p = 0.067, d = −0.41) and 0.69 ± 0.32 HRSD (p = 0.033, d = −0.42) points per week. Sham ABMT did not significantly differ from the assessment-only condition. No significant differences were observed for the MASQ scales.
Depressed individuals with at least modest negative attentional bias benefitted from active ABMT.
Home care for older people in England is commissioned through local authorities working predominantly with independent providers of care. Commissioners operate in a market model, planning and procuring home care services for local populations. Their role involves ‘managing’ and ‘shaping’ the market to ensure an adequate supply of care providers. Another imperative, emerging from the principles of personalisation, is the drive to achieve user outcomes rather than ‘time and task’ objectives. Little formal research has investigated the way commissioners reconcile these different requirements and organise commissioning. This study investigated commissioning approaches using qualitative telephone interviews with ten commissioners from different local authorities in England. The characteristics of commissioning were analysed thematically. Findings indicated (a) commissioning involved complex systems and processes, uniquely shaped for the local context, but frequently changed, suggesting a constant need for reframing commissioning arrangements; (b) partnerships with providers were mainly transactional, with occasional examples of collaborative models, that were considered to facilitate flexible services more appropriate for commissioning for personalised outcomes; and (c) only a small number of commissioners had attempted to reconcile the competing and incompatible goals of tightly prescribed contracting and working collaboratively with providers. A better understanding of flexible contracting arrangements and the hallmarks of a trusting collaboration is required to move beyond the procedural elements of contracting and commissioning.
Thomas Frederick Simmons (1815–84) combined his ecclesiastical duties and liturgical interests with editing the fourteenth-century Middle English Lay folks’ mass book (1879) for the Early English Text Society, with the aim of showing the continuity of the English Church from the medieval period through the Reformation. In the light of modern scholarship, this article recontextualises both medieval text and Simmons's own editorial practice, and shows how Simmons, as a second-generation Tractarian churchman, sought in this text – and others associated with it – evidence for the Church of England's Catholic underpinning in an imagined medieval English Church.
A case–case-control investigation (N = 255 patients) explored the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). Recent exposure to carbapenems and a rapidly fatal condition should prompt practitioners to shorten delays in initiating appropriate therapy, which can adversely impact CRPA outcomes, as opposed to the isolated impact of the carbapenem resistance determinant.
Both as a Christian and as a writer C.S. Lewis provokes divided opinions and perhaps never more so than in two accounts of his conversion to Christianity, The Pilgrim's Regress: An Allegorical Apology for Christianity, Reason and Romanticism (1933) and Surprised by Joy (1955). My focus in this essay will be not so much with the theological destination of these narratives (although I touch on this occasionally), but rather with two subsidiary themes. One is the manner of the description of the journey - Lewis's rhetoric. The other is that Romantic longing which drives the journey and which provokes hermeneutical and interpretative questions that remain important for our understanding of Romanticism and its place in the religious quest. Conversion to Christianity for Lewis, in both The Pilgrim's Regress and Surprised by Joy, seems largely an intellectual process and an individual one at that. But more important than any intellectual conclusions that he comes to is Lewis's persistent exploration of the theme of 'joy' lying at the heart of both these works, emanating from that 'private' Romanticism which he was to speak of (in the Regress) as being located in 'a particular recurrent experience which dominated my childhood and adolescence and which I hastily called 'Romantic' because inanimate nature and marvellous literature were among the things that evoked it'.
The presence in the Western world of a Christian tradition as a continuous background, albeit a vaguely defined one without a univocal meaning, is not an element for leveling out conflicts; on the contrary, it is (or has become) a constitutive factor in promoting them, and can exacerbate them.
Almost from its beginning the Bible deals in conflict and is soaked in blood. The enmity foretold between Eve and the serpent (Genesis 3:15) is translated by John Milton to the cosmic battle between the “Son of God Most High,” the fruit of Mary's womb, and the Serpent who can expect only “mortal pain.” Though traces remain in the Hebrew Bible of mythological stories of primeval warfare between the gods and the cosmic battle between good and evil, these are generally subsumed under the conditions of the Holy War in which Yahweh, the Lord of Hosts, fights for and at the head of his people against their enemies. Such imagery is later translated to the war of the Christian Church against the world, the flesh, and the devil under the banner of Christ. Blake, in “The Everlasting Gospel” (1818), has Jesus seize the “Spiritual Prey” and thus “he bound Old Satan in his Chain.”
The great song of Moses in Exodus 15:1-21 (with the briefer song of Miriam to accompany dances of victory) follows the defeat of Pharaoh's army in the Red Sea and, with its parallels in the Psalms, celebrates the triumph of God as warrior-king.
The outbreak of the Great War in 1914 marked the effective end of the nineteenth century, and with it the age of the great religious novel in Europe and its reflection on the shifting experience of Christianity after the Enlightenment and in the age of industrialisation, not least as the churches expanded globally with the growth of the colonial powers. The terrible years of the war destabilised and eroded theology and belief, and if the young English poet Wilfred Owen had already lapsed from his Christian faith even by 1913, his experiences at the front provoked a rage against the faith and a despair, later to be finely caught in Benjamin Britten’s setting of his poetry to music in the War requiem (1961), that was to herald the new century. At the same time the anxious literature of avant-garde modernism, with its attack on realism and mimesis, emerged in sceptical protest against the ‘totalizing religious and political frame-works of the nineteenth century’. Stephen, in James Joyce’s Stephen hero (1904-6) is told by a priest that his essay on ‘Art and life’ ‘represents the sum of modern unrest and modern freethinking’. Twenty years later, E. M. Forster in A passage to India (1924) allows only a minor role for the European missionaries in Chandrapore, India, and their ‘poor, chattering Christianity’.