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Commercialization of crops resistant to application of dicamba is a cause of major concern for sweetpotato producers regarding potential negative impacts due to herbicide drift or sprayer contamination events. A field study was initiated in 2014 and repeated in 2015 to assess impacts of reduced rates of BAPMA or DGA salt of dicamba, glyphosate, or a combination of these individually in separate trials with glyphosate on sweetpotato. Reduced rates of 1/10, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500, 1/750, and 1/1000 of the 1x use rate of each dicamba formulation at 0.56 kg ha-1, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha-1, and the combination of the two at aforementioned rates were applied to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at storage root formation (10 d after transplanting) in one trial or storage root development (30 d after transplanting) in a separate trial. Injury with each salt of dicamba (BAPMA or DGA) applied alone or with glyphosate was generally equal or greater than glyphosate applied alone at equivalent rates, indicating that injury is most attributable to the dicamba in the combination. There was a quadratic increase in crop injury and quadratic decrease in crop yield (with respect to most yield grades) observed with increase herbicide rate of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate applied at storage root development. However, this relationship as well as the significance of herbicide rate was not observed on crop injury or sweetpotato yield when herbicide application occurred at storage root formation stage with a few exceptions. In general, crop injury and yield reduction was greatest at the highest rate (1/10x) of either salt of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, although injury observed at lower rates would be cause for concern after initial observation by sweetpotato producers. However, in some cases yield reduction of no.1 and marketable grades was observed following 1/250, 1/100, or 1/10x application rate of dicamba alone or with glyphosate when applied at storage root development.
This chapter examines Coetzee’s creative and scholarly engagements with literary style, beginning with his earliest novel Dusklands and moving across his corpus to track his complexly evolving use of style’s emotional, ethical, and political affordances. Apparently distinct, even diverging impulses – one embracing grace and euphony, the other committing to verbal thrift and minimalism – coalesce across Coetzee’s career, soliciting complicated affective responses from his readers to the inflections and connotations of novelistic discourse. It is critically tempting see Coetzee as a kind of stern gatekeeper of formal restraint: a writer who shuns the consolations of style and who forestalls the pleasures his readers might take in elegantly wrought language, by investing instead in a kind of syntactic austerity and bareness. In practice, however, his fiction doesn’t always behave in this manner, as beautifully paced, rhetorically supple sequences from Age of Iron, Disgrace, and The Schooldays of Jesus attest.
Antibiotic overuse and misuse is a common problem in nursing homes. Antibiotic time-out (ATO) interventions have led to improvements in antibiotic uses in hospitals, but their impact in nursing homes remain understudied.
To evaluate the impact of a stewardship intervention, promoting use of ATOs on the frequency and types of antibiotic change events (ACEs) in nursing homes.
Controlled before-and-after intervention study.
Nursing homes in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania.
Data on antibiotic prescriptions in 11 nursing homes were collected for 25 months. We categorized ACEs as (1) early discontinuation, (2) class modification, or (3) administration modification. Class modification ACEs were further classified based on whether the change narrowed, expanded, or had no effect on bacterial spectrum coverage. Analyses were performed using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach.
Of 2,647 antibiotic events initiated in study nursing homes, 376 (14.2%) were associated with an ACE. The overall proportion of ACEs did not significantly differ between intervention and control nursing homes. Early discontinuation ACEs increased in intervention nursing homes (DiD, 2.5%; P = .01), primarily affecting residents initiated on broad-spectrum antibiotics (DiD, 2.9%; P < .01). Class modification ACEs decreased in intervention nursing homes but remained unchanged in control nursing homes.
The impact of an ATO intervention in study nursing homes was mixed with increases in early discontinuation ACEs offset by reductions in class modification ACEs. More research on the potential value of ATO interventions in nursing homes is warranted.
The rediscovery of the importance of mental illness in the risk assessment and management of those who threaten, approach, and harm public figures has led to a new way of dealing with those that threaten public figures. This approach emphasises the role of “fixation” which may be defined as an intense preoccupation pursued to an abnormally intense degree. It integrates a threat assessment paradigm with the literature on stalking. The need for such an approach was highlighted in research on the prevalence of harassment of public figures. Psychiatry has a key role in this approach which sees mental health clinicians and Police work together in Fixated Threat Assessment Centres (FTACs). An FTAC functions by assessing the level of concern and sharing information to facilitate interventions that are often mental health based. The purpose is not the hopeless task of identifying those who will go on to perpetrate serious violence, rather to intervene in the group they emerge from, to prevent harm. As well as decreasing risk to the persons fixated upon, this approach improves care to the mentally disordered people who harass and threaten them and, in doing so, decreases the likelihood of their criminalization while enhancing their quality of life. As expertise in the area has grown, policing and security agencies in several countries have expanded the FTAC model to cover individuals thought at risk of lone-actor grievance-fueled violence, a term that captures both different forms of mass killing and lone actor terrorism.
Migration is in the news every day. Whether it be the plight of refugees fleeing Syria, or the outbreak of the Zika virus across Latin America, the modern world is fundamentally shaped by movement across borders. Migration, arising from the 2018 Darwin College Lectures, brings together eight leading scholars across the arts, humanities, and sciences to help tackle one of the most important topics of our time. What is migration? How has it changed the world? And how will it shape the future? The authors approach these questions from a variety of perspectives, including history, politics, epidemiology, and art. Chapters related to policy, as well as those written by leading journalists and broadcasters, give perspective on how migration is understood in the media, and engage the public more widely. This interdisciplinary approach provides an original take on migration, providing new insights into the making of the modern world.
The objective of this paper was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a community-based intervention for hoarding disorder (HD) using Cognitive Rehabilitation and Exposure/Sorting Therapy (CREST).
This was a mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental study informed by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model for implementation science.
Program activities took place in San Diego County, mainly within clients’ homes or community, with some activities in-office.
Participants were aged 60 years or older, met eligibility for Medi-Cal or were uninsured, and met criteria for HD.
A manualized, mobile protocol that incorporated CREST was utilized.
The Clutter Image Rating and Hoarding Rating Scale were used as effectiveness outcomes. An investigator-created staff questionnaire was used to evaluate implementation.
Thirty-seven clients were reached and enrolled in treatment and 15 completed treatment during the initial 2 years of the program. There were significant changes in hoarding severity and clutter volume. Based on the initial 2 years of the program, funding was provided for expansion to cover additional San Diego County regions and hire more staff clinicians in year three.
Preliminary data suggest that the CREST intervention can be successfully implemented in a community setting with positive results for older adults with HD.
Field surveys were conducted across the Blacklands region of Texas during 2016 and 2017 to document the distribution of herbicide-resistant Lolium spp. infesting winter wheat production fields in the region. A total of 68 populations (64 Italian ryegrass, four perennial ryegrass) were evaluated in a greenhouse for sensitivity to herbicides of three different modes of action: an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor (mesosulfuron-methyl), two acetyl-coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors (diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden), and a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) inhibitor (glyphosate). Herbicides were applied at twice the label-recommended rates for mesosulfuron-methyl (29 g ai ha−1), diclofop-methyl (750 g ai ha−1), and pinoxaden (118 g ai ha−1); and at the recommended rate for glyphosate (868 g ae ha−1). The herbicide screenings were followed by dose-response assays of the most-resistant ryegrass population for each herbicide at eight rates (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64×), compared with a susceptible population at six rates (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2×). The initial screening and dose-response experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications and two experimental runs. Survivors (<80% injury) were characterized as highly resistant (0% to 20% injury) or moderately resistant (21% to 79%). Results showed that 97%, 92%, 39%, and 3% of the Italian ryegrass populations had survivors to diclofop-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, and glyphosate treatments, respectively. Of the four perennial ryegrass populations, three were resistant to diclofop-methyl and mesosulfuron-methyl, and one was resistant to pinoxaden as well. Perennial ryegrass populations did not exhibit any resistance to glyphosate. Dose-response assays revealed 37-, 196-, and 23-fold resistance in Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden, respectively, compared with a susceptible standard. One Italian ryegrass population exhibited three-way multiple resistance to ACCase-, ALS-, and EPSPS-inhibitors. The proliferation of multiple herbicide–resistant ryegrass is a challenge to sustainable wheat production in Texas Blacklands and warrants diversified management strategies.
Recent investigations now suggest that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may underpin part of the disease’s neurovascular component. However, our understanding of the relationship between the magnitude of CVR, the speed of cerebrovascular response, and the progression of AD is still limited. This is especially true in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is recognized as an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate AD and MCI patients by mapping repeatable and accurate measures of cerebrovascular function, namely the magnitude and speed of cerebrovascular response (τ) to a vasoactive stimulus in key predilection sites for vascular dysfunction in AD.
Thirty-three subjects (age range: 52–83 years, 20 males) were prospectively recruited. CVR and τ were assessed using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI during a standardized carbon dioxide stimulus. Temporal and parietal cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were generated from anatomical images using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite.
Of 33 subjects recruited, 3 individuals were excluded, leaving 30 subjects for analysis, consisting of 6 individuals with early AD, 11 individuals with MCI, and 13 older healthy controls (HCs). τ was found to be significantly higher in the AD group compared to the HC group in both the temporal (p = 0.03) and parietal cortex (p = 0.01) following a one-way ANCOVA correcting for age and microangiopathy scoring and a Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
The study findings suggest that AD is associated with a slowing of the cerebrovascular response in the temporal and parietal cortices.
In New York City, a multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team is proposed to support prioritization of patients for coordinated inter-facility transfer after a large-scale mass casualty event. This study examines factors that influence consultation team prioritization decisions.
As part of a multi-hospital functional exercise, 2 teams prioritized the same set of 69 patient profiles. Prioritization decisions were compared between teams. Agreement between teams was assessed based on patient profile demographics and injury severity. An investigator interviewed team leaders to determine reasons for discordant transfer decisions.
The 2 teams differed significantly in the total number of transfers recommended (49 vs 36; P = 0.003). However, there was substantial agreement when recommending transfer to burn centers, with 85.5% agreement and inter-rater reliability of 0.67 (confidence interval: 0.49–0.85). There was better agreement for patients with a higher acuity of injuries. Based on interviews, the most common reason for discordance was insider knowledge of the local community hospital and its capabilities.
A multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team was able to rapidly prioritize patients for coordinated secondary transfer using limited clinical information. Training for consultation teams should emphasize guidelines for transfer based on existing services at sending and receiving hospitals, as knowledge of local community hospital capabilities influence physician decision-making.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to evaluate specific aspects of instrument performance of both X-ray and neutron powder diffractometers. This report describes SRM 660c, the fourth generation of this powder diffraction SRM, which is used primarily for calibrating powder diffractometers with respect to line position and line shape for the determination of the instrument profile function (IPF). It is certified with respect to lattice parameter and consists of approximately 6 g of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) powder. So that this SRM would be applicable for the neutron diffraction community, the powder was prepared from an isotopically enriched 11B precursor material. The microstructure of the LaB6 powder was engineered specifically to yield a crystallite size above that where size broadening is typically observed and to minimize the crystallographic defects that lead to strain broadening. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features, was used to certify the lattice parameter of the LaB6 powder. Both Type A, statistical, and Type B, systematic, uncertainties have been assigned to yield a certified value for the lattice parameter at 22.5 °C of a = 0.415 682 6 ± 0.000 008 nm (95% confidence).
This paper examines the determinants of financial industry actors’ regulatory preferences—examining why some financial industry actors prefer less stringent financial regulations while others prefer more stringent regulations. The determination of preferences, we argue, can be understood as mutually dependent. How an organization is connected to other organisations through network ties may help to explain its regulatory preferences. Our empirical point of focus is financial industry lobbying in the context of the European Union (EU). Using data from nearly nine hundred lobbying letters related to legislation on banking, insurance, and securities regulation, we map out a “socialization network” that models connections between financial industry firms, their associations, as well as a broad range of other organisations and actors that are auxiliary to this community of organizations. Using these data we find evidence that organizations’ preferences are informed by their location within this socialization network. Controlling for a range of other plausible factors, we find that 1) those connected via common associational ties, 2) those closer to one another in the network and 3) those more “embedded” in this network are all less likely to diverge in terms of their preferences from one another.
Healthcare personnel who perform invasive procedures and are living with HIV or hepatitis B have been required to self-notify the NC state health department since 1992. State coordinated review of HCP utilizes a panel of experts to evaluate transmission risk and recommend infection prevention measures. We describe how this practice balances HCP privacy and patient safety and health.
Despite much commentary in the media and the popular assumption that the banking industry exerts undue influence on government policy-making, the academic literature on the role of the banks since the 2008 financial crisis remains theoretically and empirically under-specified. In particular, we argue that different forms of financial power are often conflated, while favorable policy outcomes are too-readily assumed to be evidence of regulatory capture. In short, we still know relatively little about how bank influence varies over time and in different national contexts, the extent to which banking interests are unified or divided, and the conditions under which banks are capable of producing meaningful variation in policy outcomes. This article has three objectives: 1) to explain why the debate on bank influence matters; 2) to examine the evidence of bank influence since the international financial crisis; and 3) to set out a range of conceptual tools for thinking about bank power.