Programmable methods for transferring materials to surfaces in patterns can produce structures with micrometer and nanometer scale features. All such technologies involve combinations of information, materials and energy. The materials in additive technologies can originate in the vapor phase, as liquids or suspensions, or as solids. The energy can come from laser, electron or ion beams, or the pressures used in writing, dispensing, jetting or flow methods. Many of the programmable techniques do not require high temperatures, so they can be used to make fine-scale structures of organic and bio-materials, and even live biologicals. Quantitative comparisons of both additive and subtractive programmable methods show that only a few, based on electron or ion beams, or on proximal probes, are capable of making nanometer-scale structures. Assembly methods, notably self- and directed-assembly, should prove to be central to the realization of manufacturable nanotechnology. Programmable deposition technologies may be used to supply materials for, and otherwise control self-assembly processes. The four sets of technologies, namely masked lithography, direct-write techniques, self-assembly and directed-assembly, provide a versatile and powerful toolbox for making micro-and nano-meter scale devices and systems.