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The Wesleyan Methodists are an extraordinary body. Nothing is too great or too comprehensive for them to grapple with, providing the object is the spiritual or temporal benefits of their fellow creatures. We might illustrate the truth of this by referring to those two gigantic schemes, which have been fully carried out – viz., the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society and the Strangers’ Friend Society: the former standing second only to the Church Missionary Society in revenue, and not surpassed in usefulness by any other; the latter standing alone – a colossal monument of the united efforts of piety and philanthropy.
(Liverpool Mail, 13 November 1838, quoted in The Watchman, 14 November 1838)
These remarks were occasioned by news of the launch of the Wesleyans’ Centenary Fund. That fund seemed remarkable to contemporaries in 1838 because of its scale and likelihood of achievement. A cascade of charitable compassions was released in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, promoted by Dissenters, Churchmen, Quakers and, supremely, the evangelical party in the Church of England. Most Church of England projects relied on upper- and some middle-class support. In contrast, the Wesleyans, in funding chapels and preachers, tapped the sympathies of a wide group of middle- and lower-class supporters, a small number of much wealthier individuals. Indeed Wesley and his successors harboured an ambivalent attitude towards rich men in their midst, fearing their power and influence.
Fortunately for posterity, Wesleyans, like their founder, cared about statistics. Before 1914 they organised seven non-annual ‘crowd-funding’ projects for philanthropic ends. The Centenary Fund of 1839–44 was the pioneer. There followed the Wesleyan Methodist Relief and Extension fund of 1853–57, the Jubilee Fund of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of 1863–68, the Wesleyan Mission Fund of 1868, the Thanksgiving Fund (in gratitude for the admission of laymen to the Wesleyan Conference without yet another schism) of 1878–83, the Twentieth Century Fund of 1898–1908, and the Centenary Fund of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of 1911–13. Before the 1880s, as was common in newspapers during much of the nineteenth century (contrary to the teaching of Jesus, and extraordinary to twenty-first-century minds), Wesleyan (and other Methodist) donation lists published the names of donors and the sums they gave, first in the denominational weekly The Watchman and then, after the fund closed, in bound volumes, listing all subscribers and their donations by district and circuit.
Syndromic surveillance is a form of surveillance that generates information for public health action by collecting, analysing and interpreting routine health-related data on symptoms and clinical signs reported by patients and clinicians rather than being based on microbiologically or clinically confirmed cases. In England, a suite of national real-time syndromic surveillance systems (SSS) have been developed over the last 20 years, utilising data from a variety of health care settings (a telehealth triage system, general practice and emergency departments). The real-time systems in England have been used for early detection (e.g. seasonal influenza), for situational awareness (e.g. describing the size and demographics of the impact of a heatwave) and for reassurance of lack of impact on population health of mass gatherings (e.g. the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games).We highlight the lessons learnt from running SSS, for nearly two decades, and propose questions and issues still to be addressed. We feel that syndromic surveillance is an example of the use of ‘big data’, but contend that the focus for sustainable and useful systems should be on the added value of such systems and the importance of people working together to maximise the value for the public health of syndromic surveillance services.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorder, however, the links between developmental coordination disorder (DCD), intellectual function and psychiatric disorder remain unexplored.
To establish the prevalence of indicative DCD in children with 22q11.2DS and examine associations with IQ, neurocognition and psychopathology.
Neurocognitive assessments and psychiatric interviews of 70 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 11.2, s.d. = 2.2) and 32 control siblings (mean age 11.5, s.d. = 2.1) were carried out in their homes. Nine children with 22q11.2DS and indicative DCD were subsequently assessed in an occupational therapy clinic.
Indicative DCD was found in 57 (81.4%) children with 22q11.2DS compared with 2 (6.3%) control siblings (odds ratio (OR) = 36.7, P < 0.001). Eight of nine (89%) children with indicative DCD met DSM-5 criteria for DCD. Poorer coordination was associated with increased numbers of anxiety, (P < 0.001), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (P < 0.001) and autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms (P < 0.001) in children with 22q11.2DS. Furthermore, 100% of children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD had indicative DCD (20 of 20), as did 90% of children with anxiety disorder (17 of 19) and 96% of children who screened positive for ASD (22 of 23). The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire score was related to sustained attention (P = 0.006), even after history of epileptic fits (P = 0.006) and heart problems (P = 0.009) was taken into account.
Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of coordination difficulties in children with 22q11.2DS and its association with risk of mental disorder and specific neurocognitive deficits.
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes later life acquired, sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in cognitively normal individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as an at-risk state for incident cognitive decline and dementia. We developed an operational definition of MBI and tested whether the presence of MBI was related to caregiver burden in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or MCI assessed at a memory clinic.
MBI was assessed in 282 consecutive memory clinic patients with SCD (n = 119) or MCI (n = 163) in accordance with the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment – Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART–AA) research diagnostic criteria. We operationalized a definition of MBI using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit caregiver burden scale. Generalized linear regression was used to model the effect of MBI domains on caregiver burden.
While MBI was more prevalent in MCI (85.3%) than in SCD (76.5%), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Prevalence estimates across MBI domains were affective dysregulation (77.8%); impulse control (64.4%); decreased motivation (51.7%); social inappropriateness (27.8%); and abnormal perception or thought content (8.7%). Affective dysregulation (p = 0.03) and decreased motivation (p=0.01) were more prevalent in MCI than SCD patients. Caregiver burden was 3.35 times higher when MBI was present after controlling for age, education, sex, and MCI (p < 0.0001).
MBI was common in memory clinic patients without dementia and was associated with greater caregiver burden. These data show that MBI is a common and clinically relevant syndrome.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a ‘typical’ halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.
The reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act in 2013 incorporated the dental profession and dental professionals into the federal legislation governing public health response to pandemics and all-hazard situations. Work is now necessary to expand the processes needed to incorporate and train oral health care professionals into pandemic and all-hazard response events.
A just-in-time (JIT) training exercise and immunization drill using an ex vivo porcine model system was conducted to demonstrate the rapidity to which dental professionals can respond to a pandemic influenza scenario. Medical history documentation, vaccination procedures, and patient throughput and error rates of 15 dental responders were evaluated by trained nursing staff and emergency response personnel.
The average throughput (22.33/hr) and medical error rates (7 of 335; 2.08%) of the dental responders were similar to those found in analogous influenza mass vaccination clinics previously conducted using certified public health nurses.
The dental responder immunization drill validated the capacity and capability of dental professionals to function as a valuable immunization resource. The ex vivo porcine model system used for JIT training can serve as a simple and inexpensive training tool to update pandemic responders’ immunization techniques and procedures supporting inoculation protocols.
Early research on the Taylor rule typically divided the data exogenously into pre-Volcker and Volcker–Greenspan subsamples. We contribute to the recent trend of endogenizing changes in monetary policy by estimating a real-time forward-looking Taylor rule with endogenous Markov switching coefficients and variance. The response of the interest rate to inflation is regime-dependent, with the pre- and post-Volcker samples containing monetary regimes where the Fed did and did not follow the Taylor principle. Although the Fed consistently adhered to the Taylor principle before 1973 and after 1984, it followed the Taylor principle from 1975 to 1979 and did not follow the Taylor principle from 1980 to 1984. We also find that the Fed only responded to real economic activity during the states in which the Taylor principle held. Our results are consistent with the idea that exogenously dividing postwar monetary policy into pre- and post-Volcker samples is misleading. The greatest qualitative difference between our results and recent research employing time-varying parameters is that we find that the Fed did not adhere to the Taylor principle during most of Paul Volcker's tenure, a finding that accords with the historical record of monetary policy.
The miconia (Miconia calvescens) invasion of the East Maui Watershed (EMW) started from a single introduction over 40 yr ago, establishing a nascent patch network spread across 20,000 ha. In 2012, an accelerated intervention strategy was implemented utilizing the Herbicide Ballistic Technology (HBT) platform in a Hughes 500D helicopter to reduce target densities of seven nascent patches in the EMW. In a 14-mo period, a total of 48 interventions eliminated 4,029 miconia targets, with an estimated 33% increase in operations and 168% increase in recorded targets relative to the adjusted means from 2005 to 2011 data (prior to HBT adoption). This sequence of interventions covered a total net area of 1,138 ha, creating a field mosaic of overlapping search coverage (saturation) for each patch (four to eight interventions per patch). Target density reduction for each patch fit exponential decay functions (R2 > 0.88, P < 0.05), with a majority of the target interventions spatially assigned to the highest saturation fields. The progressive decay in target density led to concomitant reductions in search efficiency (min ha−1) and herbicide use rate (grams ae ha−1) in subsequent interventions. Mean detection efficacy (± SE) between overlapping interventions (n = 41) was 0.62 ± 0.03, matching closely with the probability of detection for a random search operation and verifying imperfect (albeit precise) detection. The HBT platform increases the value of aerial surveillance operations with 98% efficacy in target elimination. Applying coverage saturation with an accelerated intervention schedule to known patch locations is an adaptive process for compensating imperfect detection and building intelligence with spatial and temporal relevance to the next operation.
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent (‘phoria’) and manifest (‘tropia’) strabismus using cover–uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50–0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and unravel their mechanisms of action.
In-situ wafer curvature measurements were used to study the effect of Si doping on intrinsic growth stress during the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of AlxGa1-xN (x=0-0.62) layers on SiC substrates. Post-growth transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization was used to correlate measured changes in stress with changes in film microstructure. Si doping was found to result in the inclination of edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) in AlxGa1-xN which resulted in a relaxation of compressive stress and generation of tensile stress. The experimentally measured stress gradient was similar to that predicted by an effective climb model. Dislocation inclination resulted in a reduction in the TD density for Si-doped layers compared to undoped AlxGa1-xN likely due to increased opportunities for dislocation interaction and annihilation. The TD density, which increased with increasing Al-fraction, was found to significantly alter the stress gradients in the films. Film stress was also observed to play a role in TD inclination. In undoped AlxGa1-xN, TD inclination was observed only when the film grew under a compressive stress while in Si-doped AlxGa1-xN, TD inclination was observed independent of the sign or magnitude of the film stress. Si dopants are believed to alter the concentration of surface vacancies which gives rise to dislocation jog via a surface-mediated climb mechanism.
Geometry is one branch of mathematics that has an obvious relevance to the ‘real world’. Earlier, we studied some results in Euclidean geometry and we described the group of Euclidean transformations, the isometries. We saw that the Euclidean transformations preserve distances and angles, and have a definite physical significance.
In this chapter we study projective geometry, a very different type of geometry, that has important but less obvious applications. It was discovered through artists' attempts over many centuries to paint realistic-looking pictures of scenes composed of objects situated at differing distances from the eye. How can three-dimensional scenes be represented on a two-dimensional canvas? Projective geometry explains how an eye perceives ‘the real world’, and so explains how artists can achieve realism in their work.
In Section 3.1, we look at the development of perspective in Art and explain the concept of a perspectivity. We describe Desargues' Theorem, which concerns a curious property of two triangles whose vertices are in perspective from a single point, and so explain that perspective can play a key role in the statement and the proof of theorems in mathematics.
In Section 3.2, we define the term projective point (or Point) and call the set of all such Points the projective plane, which we denote by ℝℙ2. We also define a projective line (or Line). To enable us to tackle problems in projective geometry algebraically, we introduce homogeneous coordinates to specify the Points in ℝℙ2.
In Chapter 1 we studied conics in Euclidean geometry. In the rest of the book we prove a whole range of results about figures such as lines and conics, in geometries other than Euclidean geometry. In the process of doing this, we meet two particular features of our approach to geometry which may be new to you.
The first feature is the use of transformations in geometry to simplify problems and bring out their essential character. You may have met some of these transformations previously in courses on Group Theory or on Linear Algebra.
The second feature arises from the fact that the transformations we introduce form groups. Generally, we restrict our attention to geometry in the plane, ℝ2, but even in this familiar setting there may be more than one group of transformations at our disposal. This leads to the exciting new idea that there are many different geometries!
Each geometry consists of a space, some properties possessed by figures in that space, and a group of transformations of the space that preserve these properties. For example, Euclidean plane geometry uses the space ℝ2, and is concerned with those properties of figures that depend on the notion of distance. The group associated with Euclidean geometry is the group of isometries of the plane.
This idea, that geometry can be thought of in terms of a space and a group acting on it, is called the Kleinian view of geometry, after the 19th-century German mathematician Felix Klein who proposed it first.