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This chapter draws on research into the lives and prison experiences of around 650 male and female convicts who were released on licence (an early form of parole) from sentences of long-term imprisonment in England in the mid- to late nineteenth century. While both men and women were overwhelmingly committed to the convict system for larceny, their treatment differed significantly. The vast majority of convicts were released early on licence from their prison terms, even those committing very serious offences. However, female offenders were released slightly earlier and under different conditions than men. Having offended against their gender as well as society, more moral rehabilitation was deemed necessary for deviant women than for men, leading to requirements such as entering refuges or shelters. Female convicts’ internment in these institutions after being granted a licence reveals the impact of gender expectations on female prisoners in England.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is believed to be a single species with a global distribution, but it has not been confirmed previously whether isolates from different environmental and geographic origins are genotypically and phenotypically identical. In the present study, a polyphasic approach was employed to characterize nine clonal isolates, plus an additional replicate of one of the isolates, of the diatom T. pseudonana from culture collections to investigate whether there was any cryptic speciation in the publicly available strains of this species. Morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy concluded that the strains were indistinguishable. Furthermore, conventional DNA barcoding genes (SSU rDNA, ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA and rbcL), revealed no nucleotide variation among the strains tested. On employing a whole genome fingerprinting technique, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), three clusters were revealed, although the level of variation between the clusters was surprisingly low. These findings indicate a low level of diversity among these cultured T. pseudonana strains, despite their wide spatial and temporal distribution and the salinity range of their original habitats. Based on the limited number of available strains, this suggests that T. pseudonana is a highly conserved diatom that nevertheless has an ability to tolerate wide ranges of salinity and populate varied geographic locations.
The miconia (Miconia calvescens) invasion of the East Maui Watershed (EMW) started from a single introduction over 40 yr ago, establishing a nascent patch network spread across 20,000 ha. In 2012, an accelerated intervention strategy was implemented utilizing the Herbicide Ballistic Technology (HBT) platform in a Hughes 500D helicopter to reduce target densities of seven nascent patches in the EMW. In a 14-mo period, a total of 48 interventions eliminated 4,029 miconia targets, with an estimated 33% increase in operations and 168% increase in recorded targets relative to the adjusted means from 2005 to 2011 data (prior to HBT adoption). This sequence of interventions covered a total net area of 1,138 ha, creating a field mosaic of overlapping search coverage (saturation) for each patch (four to eight interventions per patch). Target density reduction for each patch fit exponential decay functions (R2 > 0.88, P < 0.05), with a majority of the target interventions spatially assigned to the highest saturation fields. The progressive decay in target density led to concomitant reductions in search efficiency (min ha−1) and herbicide use rate (grams ae ha−1) in subsequent interventions. Mean detection efficacy (± SE) between overlapping interventions (n = 41) was 0.62 ± 0.03, matching closely with the probability of detection for a random search operation and verifying imperfect (albeit precise) detection. The HBT platform increases the value of aerial surveillance operations with 98% efficacy in target elimination. Applying coverage saturation with an accelerated intervention schedule to known patch locations is an adaptive process for compensating imperfect detection and building intelligence with spatial and temporal relevance to the next operation.
It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
Recent results in the use of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano/submicron crystals in fields as diverse as sensors, UV lasers, solar cells, piezoelectric nanogenerators and light emitting devices have reinvigorated the interest of the scientific community in this material. To fully exploit the wide range of properties offered by ZnO, a good understanding of the crystal growth mechanism and related defects chemistry is necessary. However, a full picture of the interrelation between defects, processing and properties has not yet been completed, especially for the ZnO nanostructures that are now being synthesized. Furthermore, achieving good control in the shape of the crystal is also a very desirable feature based on the strong correlation there is between shape and properties in nanoscale materials. In this paper, the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures via two alternative aqueous solution methods - sonochemical and hydrothermal - will be presented, together with the influence that the addition of citric anions or variations in the concentration of the initial reactants have on the ZnO crystals shape. Foreseen applications might be in the field of sensors, transparent conductors and large area electronics possibly via ink-jet printing techniques or self-assembly methods.
We are developing Colossal Magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite thin film bolometric sensors to be employed as total energy detectors for beam diagnostics of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Free Electron Laser (FEL) (at the Stanford Linear Accelerator). LCLS is an ultra bright, ultra short coherent x-ray source whose peak brightness will exceed that of third generation x-ray sources by about ten orders of magnitude and average brightness by three orders of magnitudes. It is expected to produce 1012 x-rays per 200 fs pulse with a repeat frequency of 120 Hz through self-amplified stimulated emission. In characterizing the beam, it will be necessary to measure the total energy of the FEL pulse. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has developed a scheme for FEL total energy measurements based on bolometric detection and are collaborating with Towson University to implement such a detector using CMR manganite thin films. Here we discuss the basic scheme, results of simulations of the thermal response and the materials development efforts towards fabricating the thin film detectors.
Many of the key challenges and opportunities in the study of matter involve complex and collective phenomena in which many parts exhibit organization without a central instruction set or clock. At the core of this enterprise in the study of matter is the search for an understanding of “emergent behavior”—that is, phenomena whose ultimate cause involves interactions between many simple units but which cannot be easily predicted from knowledge of the component parts alone. Examples of emergence are ordered convection cells in fluids, metabolic processes in cells, cognition, and stripes in superconductors. Our shorthand designation for soft, hard, and living matter exhibiting emergent behavior is “complex adaptive matter.”
An understanding of environmental factors governing patchy weed distribution in fields could prove to be a valuable tool in weed management. The objectives of this research were to investigate the relationships between weed distribution patterns and environmental properties in two Mississippi soybean fields and to construct models based on those relationships to predict weed distribution. Two months before planting, fields were soil sampled on a 60- by 60-m coordinate grid, and samples were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, zinc, cation exchange capacity, percent organic matter, and soil pH. The relative elevation of each sample location was also recorded. Approximately 8 wk after planting, weed populations were estimated on a 30- by 30-m grid over the soil sample grid. Punctual kriging was used to estimate environmental values at each weed sample location. Discriminant analysis techniques were used to evaluate the associations between environmental characteristics on weed population densities of sample areas within each field. Generally, as sicklepod and pitted morningglory infestations increased, the prediction accuracy of the discriminant functions also increased; however, horsenettle infestations were not closely correlated to the environmental properties. Discriminant functions reasonably predicted presence or absence of sicklepod and pitted morningglory within the field. However, validation of the functions across years within the same field and with data collected from the other field resulted in poor classification of all species infestations. Prediction of weed infestations with environmental properties was specific for each field, year, and species.
A phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 21 biraphid naviculoid diatom species (from three orders and five families, using 5 protoplast
and 21 frustule characters) to test whether the recently described genus Craspedostauros was more closely related to members of the
Mastogloiaceae or to other stauros-bearing diatoms. The analysis also tested, and confirmed, the hypothesis that the stauros, as
recognized by light microscopy, is a homoplastic character. Whereas partitioned analyses of protoplast and frustule data resolved different
parts of the ‘total’ tree, using NONA parsimony analysis of all the data, one tree was obtained. This tree placed Craspedostauros in the
mastogloialean clade, rather than near Stauroneis, Staurophora, Haslea or Meuniera. The ordinal and familial groupings suggested by Round
and others were also confirmed by the analysis, supported particularly by protoplast and some ultrastructural features.
The aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that elevated cerebral lactate, detected by proton spectroscopy performed within 18 hours of suspected birth asphyxia, is associated with adverse outcome, and that increased lactate can be used to predict adverse outcome. Thirty-one term infants suspected of having had birth asphyxia and seven control infants underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, using three-dimensional chemical shift imaging, within 18 hours of birth. Adverse outcome was defined as death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 1 year of age or more. Nine infants had an adverse outcome. The other 22 and all of the control infants remained normal. Median (range) lactate/creatine plus phosphocreatine (lactate/creatine) ratios in the abnormal, the normal, and the control group were 1.14 (0.17 to 3.81), 0.33 (0 to 1.51), and 0.05 (0 to 0.6) respectively (P=0.003). Lactate/creatine >1.0 predicted neurodevelopmental impairment at 1 year of age with sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 95%, positive and negative predictive values of 86% and 88%, and a likelihood ratio of 13.2. Elevated cerebral lactate/creatine within 18 hours of birth asphyxia predicts adverse outcome.
To assess attitudes, predictors of intention, and identify perceived barriers to increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes.
UK nationwide postal survey utilizing the theory of planned behaviour.
Stratified (by social class and region) random sample of 2020 UK adults providing a modest response rate of 37% (n = 741).
Belief measures (e.g. health, cost, taste, etc.) were strongly associated with overall attitudes which were reported as being largely favourable towards fruit, vegetables and, to a lesser extent, vegetable dishes, and were strongly associated with reported intention to increase consumption. Subjects reported they could increase their consumption, but this was only weakly associated with intention to do so. Approximately 50% of respondents reported an intention to increase intakes. Social pressure was strongly associated with reported intention to increase; however, scores indicated low perceived social pressure to change. Evidence of unrealistic optimism concerning perceived intakes and the perceived high cost of fruit may also act as barriers.
Results from this study suggest a lack of perceived social pressure to increase F&V intakes and suggests that public health efforts require stronger and broader health messages that incorporate consumer awareness of low present consumption.
This study reports results from a randomized controlled intervention trial, focusing on: (1) the identification of successful consumer strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intakes to the recommended levels of more than five (80 g) portions per day and (2) impact on overall diet and nutrient intakes. Adult men and women (n 170) fulfilling the main recruitment criterion of eating less than five fruit and vegetable portions per day but contemplating increasing intakes were recruited. Complete valid dietary data was provided by 101 intervention (fifty-nine estimated fruit and vegetable intakes, and forty-two simultaneous weighed total dietary and estimated fruit and vegetable intakes) and twenty-four control subjects (weighed total dietary intakes). Intervention advice included the specific association of high fruit and vegetable intake with reduced risk of disease, practicalities, and portion definition with a target intake of greater than five 80 g fruit and vegetable portions per day for 8 weeks. There were significant effects (P < 0·001) on weighed intakes of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group, rising from 324 (se 25) to 557 (se 31) g/d and reflected by validated portion measures at 8 weeks intervention. Successful strategies chosen by ‘achievers’ of the target intake (65% of subjects) were conventional (fruit as a snack, vegetables with main meals etc.) and favoured fruit. There were significant increases in percentage energy from carbohydrate (from sugars not starch), vitamin C, carotenes and NSP and there was a significant decrease in percentage energy from fat for subjects who had high fat intakes (> 35% energy) at baseline. Follow-up self-reported measures at 6 and 12 months indicated mean intakes of 4·5 and 4·6 defined portions/d respectively, suggesting some sustainable effect. In conclusion, the intervention led to significant increases in fruit and vegetable intakes largely via conventional eating habits, with some desirable effects on macro- and micronutrient intakes.
To assess the response of low consumers of fruit and vegetables to a nutrition education intervention programme, data were collected from 104 adults on attitudinal variables related to ‘eating more fruit, vegetables and vegetable dishes’. Questionnaires (based on the theory of planned behaviour) assessing perceived barriers to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption were administered before an action-orientated intervention programme and at the end of the intervention period (8 weeks). Questionnaire scores for belief-evaluations in the intervention groups pre- and post-study indicated that support of family and friends, food costs, time constraints and shopping practicalities (in order to increase intake of fruit, vegetable and vegetable dishes) were barriers to greater consumption of these foodstuffs. Perceived situational barriers to increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables were: limited availability of vegetables, salads and fruit at work canteens, take-aways, friends' houses and at work generally. Following the intervention the number of visits to the shops was perceived as a greater barrier for increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables. Perceived practical opportunities for increasing intakes highlighted drinking fruit juice, taking fruit as a dessert, having fruit as a between-meal snack and eating two portions of vegetables with a meal. About two-thirds of intervention subjects achieved the recommended fruit and vegetable target, but it is concluded that practical issues and situational barriers need to be addressed for the success of future public health campaigns.
This chapter presents applied general equilibrium estimates of the impact on Canada of the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and outlines the model and data used. These results are an extension of research previously reported in a paper written with Richard Harris [Cox and Harris (1992)].
The inclusion of Mexico in a free trade area with Canada and the United States raises a number of issues from the Canadian perspective. Among these are the following: the impact of NAFTA on the volume and pattern of trade between Canada and Mexico, the impact of increased imports from Mexico on employment patterns and factor returns, the extent to which Canadian exports to Mexico will increase, and the potential diversion of Canadian exports to the U.S. market as U.S. tariffs on Mexican imports are removed. The volume of existing Canada-Mexico trade is relatively low. It was valued at 2.5 billion dollars in 1989, or 1 percent of Canadian trade. While the agreement presumably will icrease trade, the magnitude of the effect is far from certain. At the same time, the United States is by far the largest trading partner of both Canada and Mexico, with each country sending over 65 percent of its exports to the United States. Under NAFTA, Canadian exporters will lose some of the competitive advantage they obtained vis-à-vis Mexico under the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).