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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The relationship between depression and sexual behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly understood.
To investigate prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10) and the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual behaviour among MSM reporting recent sex.
The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) is a cross-sectional study of UK genitourinary medicine clinic attendees without diagnosed HIV (2013–2014).
Among 1340 MSM, depressive symptoms (12.4%) were strongly associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and lower supportive network. Adjusted for key sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms were associated with measures of condomless sex partners in the past 3 months (≥2 (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.42, 95% CI 1.17–1.74; P=0.001), unknown or HIV-positive status (PR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20–1.71; P<0.001)), sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (PR 1.46, 95% CI 1.19–1.79; P<0.001) and post-exposure prophylaxis use in the past year (PR 1.83, 95% CI 1.33–2.50; P<0.001).
Management of mental health may play a role in HIV and STI prevention.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study is to develop an effective and efficient STI preventive intervention among college students following the principles and phases of MOST. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION As part of the preparation phase, an explicit conceptual model, drawing heavily on theory and prior research, was used to translate the existing science into 5 candidate intervention components (ie, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, expectancies, perceived benefits of protective behavioral strategies, and self-efficacy). For the optimization phase, in Fall 2016 all first-year students (n=3547) from 4 universities were recruited to participate. Students were randomized to 1 of 32 different experimental conditions that included a combination of the candidate intervention components. Component effectiveness was evaluated using data from an immediate post-intervention survey on respective component mediators (eg, alcohol and sex-related descriptive norms). After a second factorial experiment (Fall 2017), only those intervention components that meet the pre-specified criteria of day ≥0.15 will be included in the optimized intervention. The evaluation phase will evaluate the effectiveness of the optimized STI preventive intervention via a randomized-control trial (Fall 2018). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary results from the first factorial experiment suggest that descriptive norms and injunctive norms intervention components were significantly effective in reducing post-intervention perceived alcohol prevalence (β=−0.28, p<0.001) and approval of alcohol (β=−0.33, p<0.001), and sex-related norms (β=−0.23, p<.001). These results, in combination with process data, are being used to inform revisions of the intervention components to be included in a second factorial screening experiment. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study demonstrates how an iterative approach to engineering an STI preventive intervention using MOST can affect the behaviors of college students and serve as a foundation for other translational science.
The modern study of magic in Islam is intimately connected to the history of Orientalism as it developed during the course of the nineteenth century. It is also true that the belief in jinn and their occult power is rooted in the Qurʾān and the fabric of early Islamic cosmography. Similarly, the practice of shrine veneration and the acceptance and promotion of saintly miracles is intimately connected to the structures of religious authority and piety in Islamic history. The Qurʾān speaks of magic as illicit and harmful and generally associates it with evil or trickery. One of the fields of the occult that directly intersects with the religious elite can be found in the diverse practices of exorcism. The charismatic presence in the written and oral forms of the Qurʾān fits into a larger topography of sacred materiality, which included a range of physical objects and locations invested with intercessory powers.
This book presents twenty chapters by experts in their fields, providing a thorough and interdisciplinary overview of the theory and practice of magic in the West. Its chronological scope extends from the Ancient Near East to twenty-first-century North America; its objects of analysis range from Persian curse tablets to US neo-paganism. For comparative purposes, the volume includes chapters on developments in the Jewish and Muslim worlds, evaluated not simply for what they contributed at various points to European notions of magic, but also as models of alternative development in ancient Mediterranean legacy. Similarly, the volume highlights the transformative and challenging encounters of Europeans with non-Europeans, regarding the practice of magic in both early modern colonization and more recent decolonization.
Science certainly influenced growing intellectual caution about the reality of witchcraft during the seventeenth century, but the key to the end of the witch trials was the developing sophistication of jurisprudence and the increasing centralisation of judicial authority as absolutist states extended their control over their citizens. Witchcraft was decriminalised and demoted to the status of a false belief by the Witchcraft Act of 1736. The confessional propaganda battles that began with the Reformation continued to be played out at the end of the nineteenth century in regions such as the Netherlands and southern Germany where Catholic and Protestant clergy rubbed alongside each other for influence. The Napoleonic state provided the political and structural conditions for imposing medical control, the Law of Ventôse imposed a national system of medical licensing. In Britain, the 1858 Medical Act created a medical register that made it easy to identify unlicensed medical practitioners, thereby enabling the police to better pursue quacks and cunning folk.