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There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Background: Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Methods: Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. Results: The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. Conclusions: There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.
Drawing inferences about the decision utilities of suicide terrorists from their final action is tempting, but hazardous. Direct elicitation of those utilities would be more informative, but is infeasible. Substituting examination of archival materials for elicitation makes the assumption that leaders and bombers have similar utilities. Insight regarding the beliefs of terrorist leaders might be available from observations of recruitment strategies.
Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B) argue that classical probability (CP) fails to describe human decision processes accurately and should be supplanted by quantum probability. We accept the premise, but reject P&B's conclusion. CP is a prescriptive framework that has inspired a great deal of valuable research. Also, because CP is used across the sciences, it is a cornerstone of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Vaesen asks whether goal maintenance and planning ahead are critical for innovative tool use. We suggest that these aptitudes may have an evolutionary foundation in motor planning abilities that span all primate species. Anticipatory effects evidenced in the reaching behaviors of lemurs, tamarins, and rhesus monkeys similarly bear on the evolutionary origins of foresight as it pertains to tool use.
When seeking help or advice, one naturally wishes to get that aid from someone who does the task well, from an expert. Determining whether someone merits that label is not trivial, and the judgment can have important consequences. Experts in most domains, from athletes to plumbers, need to exhibit a high level of performance to maintain their status. But there is another group of professionals that is never examined. The expert status of such experts is conferred via criteria such as education or experience. While their credentials may be challenged, their work itself is not seen to bear upon their status. We refer to this group as privileged experts. These experts make assessments or predictions whose correctness is rarely evaluated. Even if prophecy fails, errors are forgiven. We account for this non-evidentiary perspective by positing a widely-held misconception that expertise generalizes. We outline a task-specific, performance-based, limited-term certification scheme that can supplant privilege.
Articular cartilage is a low-friction, load-bearing tissue located at joint
surfaces. It experiences static and dynamic forces including shear,
compression and tension. We investigate the relationship between structure
and function by measuring the osmotic and mechanical properties in cartilage
layers as a function of the distance from the articular surface. Atomic
force microscopy is used to probe the mechanical properties at high spatial
resolution. The mechanical measurements are complemented by osmotic swelling
pressure observations made on the same samples using a novel tissue
osmometer. The results show that the osmotic modulus significantly depends
on the distance from the articular surface. Its value is highest in the deep
zone and lowest in the middle zone.
The ability to strongly attach biomolecules such as enzymes and antibodies to surfaces underpins a host of technologies that are rapidly growing in utility and importance. Such technologies include biosensors for medical and environmental applications and protein or antibody diagnostic arrays for early disease detection. Emerging new applications include continuous flow reactors for enzymatic chemical, textile or biofuels processing and implantable biomaterials that interact with their host via an interfacial layer of active biomolecules. In many of these applications it is desirable to maintain physical properties of an underlying material whilst engineering a surface suitable for attachment of proteins or peptide constructs. Nanoscale polymeric interlayers are attractive for this purpose.
We have developed interlayers that form the basis of a new biomolecule binding technology with significant advantages over other currently available methods. The interlayers, created by the ion implantation of polymer like surfaces, achieve covalent immobilization on immersion of the surface in protein solution. The interlayers can be created on any underlying material and ion stitched into its surface. The covalent immobilization of biomolecules from solution is achieved through the action of highly reactive free radicals in the interlayer.
In this paper, we present characterisation of the structure and properties of the interlayers and describe a detailed kinetic model for the covalent attachment of protein molecules directly from solution.
A micro (∼1 cm3) dynamic heat engine, capable of producing electrical power from lowgrade heat sources, utilizes a micro-machined diaphragm with a piezoelectric element as a The electromechanical coupling of a piezoelectric diaphragm under large initial stresses and/or large deflections – in the membrane limit – is described here. A simple model is derived for electromechanical transduction of a pressurized piezoelectric membrane and an experiment is described to measure it. Electromechanical coupling initially increases as the square of the center-point deflection as the residual stress is overcome. In the limit of large pressures, the electromechanical coupling approaches a limit that is predicted by the model.
Reference dielectric function spectra,ε-ε1+ iε2, for strained Si1-x Gex have been generated for 0<x<0.255. Used in an interpolation procedure they allow multilayer analysis of pseudo-dielectric function spectra, <ε <ε1 + i<ε2, measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) on strained Si1-xGex/Si structures of arbitrary composition, x≤0.255. These include multi-quantum well (MQW) structures important for application as infrared detectors.
The growth and characterization of heteroepitaxial ZnSe and both rock salt and zinc blende MnS on (100) GaAs substrates is described. The ZnSe layers were grown using a novel thermal cyclic annealing procedure, and exhibit the narrowest double crystal X-ray diffraction rocking curves (28 arc sec FWHM) and free exciton low temperature photoluminescence peaks (0.93 meV FWHM) ever reported. Growth of thin (~300 Å) layers of metastable zinc blende MnS is achieved for the first time using ZnSe buffer layers and low temperature growth. The material is characterized using low temperature and room temperature photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.
Epitaxial thin layers of YBa 2Cu 3O7−x (Tc=90 K, Jc (OT, 77 K) = 2 106 A cm-2) were synthesised by thermal decomposition (750 − 830 °C) of tetramethylheptanedionates of yttrium, barium and copper in the presence of oxygen. Three different precursor delivery systems have been used: In the first, the precursor's surface is flushed with the carrier gas (Ar), in the second, argon is directly injected through the powder leading to a much higher transport rate, and in the third, a liquid (diketonates in a solvent) is nebulized via a piezoelectric transducer. The transport and deposition rates obtained in these three different reactors will be compared.