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Though there are effective psychological and drug treatments for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), many patients remain inadequately treated or untreated. Making effective self-treatment guidance available may increase the number of patients being helped. In this review, database and manual literature searches were performed of case studies, open and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of bibliotherapy, self-help groups, telecare and computer-aided self-help for OCD. We found no RCTs of bibliotherapy or self-help groups for OCD. Three open studies showed the efficacy of brief exposure and ritual prevention (ERP) instructions delivered by a live therapist by phone. A vicarious ERP computer program was effective in a small open study. Fully interactive computer-aided self-help by ERP for OCD was efficacious in two open studies and a large multicentre RCT, and in a small RCT compliance and outcome with that program was enhanced by brief scheduled support from a clinician. Although more research is needed, self-help approaches have the potential to help many more patients who would otherwise remain inadequately treated or untreated. Their dissemination could save resources used by health care providers. We propose a stepped care model for the treatment of OCD.
The dominant conceptions of emotional intelligence can be categorized into “ability” models and “mixed” models. Ability models view emotional intelligence as a construct related to other intelligences and consisting of a set of mental abilities whereas mixed models view emotional intelligence as a blend of standard personality traits and various abilities. In this chapter, we review these models of emotional intelligence, including the measures associated with each, and provide a brief summary of the debate between ability models and mixed models. Narrowing in on the ability conception of emotional intelligence, we then discuss its behavioral and neural correlates, development, and malleability, as well as a school-based intervention designed to promote these skills. We conclude with an exploration of possibilities for the emotional intelligence research landscape in the next thirty years.
This research demonstrates financial derivative trade of unprocessed materials, for the mining industry through legal smart contracts. Within the mining supply chain, a stock of mined resources can reside in a mineral stockpile for over twenty years without gaining financial interest and without undergoing the mineral extraction process to derive value from the asset. This research elaborates on a blockchain solution implemented to increase miners’ short-term cash flow for business operations through the issuance of derivative assets on mineral stockpiles which can be traded through legally binding smart contracts. The system is the first to enable mining companies’ access to the underlying asset’s value earlier in the production lifecycle through smart contract technology whilst providing hedge funds with access to new financial products for investment portfolios.
In March 2017, the New Jersey Department of Health received reports of 3 patients who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis knee pain at the same private outpatient facility in New Jersey. The risk of septic arthritis resulting from intra-articular injection is low. However, outbreaks of septic arthritis associated with unsafe injection practices in outpatient settings have been reported.
An infection prevention assessment of the implicated facility’s practices was conducted because of the ongoing risk to public health. The assessment included an environmental inspection of the facility, staff interviews, infection prevention practice observations, and a medical record and office document review. A call for cases was disseminated to healthcare providers in New Jersey to identify patients treated at the facility who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections.
We identified 41 patients with septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections. Cultures of synovial fluid or tissue from 15 of these 41 case patients (37%) recovered bacteria consistent with oral flora. The infection prevention assessment of facility practices identified multiple breaches of recommended infection prevention practices, including inadequate hand hygiene, unsafe injection practices, and poor cleaning and disinfection practices. No additional cases were identified after infection prevention recommendations were implemented by the facility.
Aseptic technique is imperative when handling, preparing, and administering injectable medications to prevent microbial contamination.
This investigation highlights the importance of adhering to infection prevention recommendations. All healthcare personnel who prepare, handle, and administer injectable medications should be trained in infection prevention and safe injection practices.
Despite the transition from apartheid to democracy, South Africa is the most unequal country in the world. Its extremes of wealth and poverty undermine intensifying struggles for a better life for all. The wide-ranging essays in this sixth volume of the New South African Review demonstrate how the consequences of inequality extend throughout society and the political economy, crippling the quest for social justice, polarising the politics, skewing economic outcomes and bringing devastating environmental consequences in their wake. Contributors survey the extent and consequences of inequality across fields as diverse as education, disability, agrarian reform, nuclear geography and small towns, and tackle some of the most difficult social, political and economic issues. How has the quest for greater equality affected progressive political discourse? How has inequality reproduced itself, despite best intentions in social policy, to the detriment of the poor and the historically disadvantaged? How have shifts in mining and the financialisation of the economy reshaped the contours of inequality? How does inequality reach into the daily social life of South Africans, and shape the way in which they interact? How does the extent and shape of inequality in South Africa compare with that of other major countries of the global South which themselves are notorious for their extremes of wealth and poverty? South African extremes of inequality reflect increasing inequality globally, and The Crisis of Inequality will speak to all those – general readers, policy makers, researchers and students – who are demanding a more equal world.
Objectives: In unpredictable situations, individuals often show tradeoffs between response initiation and inhibition speeds. We tested the hypothesis that Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor subtypes differentially impact tradeoffs between these two action-oriented processes. We predicted that, compared to tremor dominant (TD) patients, predominant postural instability and gait dysfunction (PIGD) patients would show exacerbated tradeoffs between response initiation and inhibition in situations requiring the sudden potential need to interrupt an action. Methods: Fifty-one PD patients (subdivided into PIGD [n=27] and TD [n=24]) and 21 healthy controls (HCs) completed a choice reaction task to establish baseline response initiation speed between groups. Subsequently, participants completed a stop-signal task which introduced an occasional, unpredictable stop stimulus. We measured changes in initiation speed in preparation of an unpredictable stop (i.e., proactive slowing) and inhibition latency (i.e., stop-signal reaction time). Results: Compared to HCs, PD patients showed slower response initiation speeds in the choice reaction task. All groups showed proactive slowing in the stop-signal task but the magnitude was considerably larger in PIGD patients, almost twice as large as TD patients. PD patients, irrespective of motor subtype, showed longer inhibition latencies than HCs. Conclusions: PIGD and TD subtypes both showed exacerbated response inhibition deficits. However, PIGD patients showed much more pronounced proactive slowing in situations with an expected yet unpredictable need to stop action abruptly. This suggests that PIGD is accompanied by exaggerated tradeoffs between response initiation and inhibition processes to meet situational action demands. We discuss putative neural mechanisms and clinical implications of these findings. (JINS, 2017, 23, 665–674)
To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events
Retrospective chart review
A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania
All patients hospitalized during 2011–2012
Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded.
We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented.
In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015.
Traumatic injuries affect millions of patients each year, and resulting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) significantly contributes to subsequent impairment.
To map the distinctive long-term trajectories of PTSD responses over 6 years by using latent growth mixture modelling.
Randomly selected injury patients (n = 1084) admitted to four hospitals around Australia were assessed in hospital, and at 3, 12, 24 and 72 months. Lifetime psychiatric history and current PTSD severity and functioning were assessed.
Five trajectories of PTSD response were noted across the 6 years: (a) chronic (4%), (b) recovery (6%), (c) worsening/recovery (8%), (d) worsening (10%) and (e) resilient (73%). A poorer trajectory was predicted by female gender, recent life stressors, presence of mild traumatic brain injury and admission to intensive care unit.
These findings demonstrate the long-term PTSD effects that can occur following traumatic injury. The different trajectories highlight that monitoring a subset of patients over time is probably a more accurate means of identifying PTSD rather than relying on factors that can be assessed during hospital admission.
The objective of this study was to determine if modification of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) system by the addition of an Orange category, intermediate between the most critically injured (Red) and the non-critical, non-ambulatory injured (Yellow), would reduce over- and under-triage rates in a simulated mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercise.
A computer-simulation exercise of identical presentations of an MCI scenario involving a 2-train collision, with 28 case scenarios, was provided for triaging to two groups: the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY; n = 1,347) using modified START, and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers from the Eagles 2012 EMS conference (Lafayette, Louisiana USA; n = 110) using unmodified START. Percent correct by triage category was calculated for each group. Performance was then compared between the two EMS groups on the five cases where Orange was the correct answer under the modified START system.
Overall, FDNY-EMS providers correctly triaged 91.2% of cases using FDNY-START whereas non-FDNY-Eagles providers correctly triaged 87.1% of cases using unmodified START. In analysis of the five Orange cases (chest pain or dyspnea without obvious trauma), FDNY-EMS performed significantly better using FDNY-START, correctly triaging 86.3% of cases (over-triage 1.5%; under-triage 12.2%), whereas the non-FDNY-Eagles group using unmodified START correctly triaged 81.5% of cases (over-triage 17.3%; under-triage 1.3%), a difference of 4.9% (95% CI, 1.5-8.2).
The FDNY-START system may allow providers to prioritize casualties using an intermediate category (Orange) more properly aligned to meet patient needs, and as such, may reduce the rates of over-triage compared with START. The FDNY-START system decreases the variability in patient sorting while maintaining high field utility without needing computer assistance or extensive retraining. Comparison of triage algorithms at actual MCIs is needed; however, initial feedback is promising, suggesting that FDNY-START can improve triage with minimal additional training and cost.
ArshadFH, WilliamsA, AsaedaG, IsaacsD, KaufmanB, Ben-EliD, GonzalezD, FreeseJP, HillgardnerJ, WeakleyJ, HallCB, WebberMP, PrezantDJ. A Modified Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment Algorithm from the New York City (USA) Fire Department. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(2):1-6.