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Anecdotal reports suggest that children and young adults with CHD frequently experience pain in their legs. The purpose of this pilot study, performed by Little Hearts Matter patient organisation, was to assess the burden of leg pains in this group and begin to investigate associated factors and consequences for daily living.
An internet-based survey was distributed by Little Hearts Matter patient organisation. After anonymisation and collation, responses were analysed and compared with their healthy siblings.
Of the 220 patients who responded, 94% reported leg pains compared with 30% of siblings (n=107; p<0.001). In respondents, pain was typically reported to occur in the lower legs or around the knees or ankles, often associated with crying and screaming (49.0%) and most commonly occurring at night-time (82.0%). Individuals taking aspirin and those who were more active were more likely to report leg pains. Older age was associated with leg pain that occurred with stress (p=0.02) and at night (p=0.05). Analgesia (64.1%) or massage (53.9%) was the preferred option for alleviation. There was no gender bias, association with diagnosis, surgical history, and/ or relationship with diagnosed orthopaedic issues.
Leg pains are more frequent in those with CHD compared with their healthy siblings. Aetiology is uncertain, but pains share many common characteristics with benign “growing pains”.
Faraday effect measurements of holmium oxide (Ho2O3) ceramics-based magneto-optical materials, highly potential material candidates for high-energy laser Faraday isolators, are presented in this paper. Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant of nondoped Ho2O3 ceramics was measured for temperatures 15–305 K at
wavelength. The Verdet constant dispersion for wavelengths 0.5–
was measured for both nondoped Ho2O3 ceramics and Ho2O3 ceramics doped with terbium Tb3+ (0.2 at. %) and cerium Ce3+ (0.1 at. %) ions. The results suggest that the relatively low level of doping of Ho2O3 with these ions has no significant boosting impact on the Faraday effect. Therefore, other compositions of Ho2O3 ceramics-based magneto-optical materials, as well as various doping concentrations, should be further examined.
We report an experimental study of photocarrier lifetime, transport, and excitation spectra in silicon-on-insulator doped with sulfur far above thermodynamic saturation. The spectral dependence of photocurrent in coplanar structures is consistent with photocarrier generation throughout the hyperdoped and undoped sub-layers, limited by collection of holes transported along the undoped layer. Holes photoexcited in the hyperdoped layer are able to diffuse to the undoped layer, implying (μτ)h ∼ 5 × 10−9 cm2/V. Although high absorptance of hyperdoped silicon is observed from 1200 to 2000 nm in transmission experiments, the number of collected electrons per absorbed photon is 10−4 of the above-bandgap response of the device, consistent with (μτ)e < 1 × 10−7cm2/V.
Several studies have suggested that neuropsychological and structural brain deficits are implicated in poor insight. Few insight studies however have combined neurocognitive and structural neuroanatomical measures.
Focusing on the ability to relabel psychotic symptoms as pathological, we examined insight, brain structure and neurocognition in first-onset psychosis.
Voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 82 individuals with psychosis and 91 controls assessed with a brief neuropsychological test battery. Insight was measured using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight.
The principal analysis showed reduced general neuropsychological function was linked to poor symptom relabelling ability. A subsequent between-psychosis group analysis found those with no symptom relabelling ability had significant global and regional grey matter deficits primarily located at the posterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus/cuneus.
The cingulate gyrus (as part of a midline cortical system) along with right hemisphere regions may be involved in illness and symptom self-appraisal in first-onset psychosis.
In the recent United States–led “war on terror,” including ongoing engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, news organizations have been accused of showing a negative view of developments on the ground. In particular, news depictions of casualties have brought accusations of anti-Americanism and aiding and abetting the terrorists' cause. In this study, video footage of war from television news stories was manipulated to investigate the effects of negative compelling images on cognitive resource allocation, physiological arousal, and recognition memory. Results of a within-subjects experiment indicate that negatively valenced depictions of casualties and destruction elicit greater attention and physiological arousal than positive and low-intensity images. Recognition memory for visual information in the graphic negative news condition was highest, whereas audio recognition for this condition was lowest. The results suggest that negative, high-intensity video imagery diverts cognitive resources away from the encoding of verbal information in the newscast, positioning visual images and not the spoken narrative as a primary channel of viewer learning.
This book brings together academics, writers and politicians to explore the range and nature of the media in Scotland. The book includes chapters on the separate histories of the press, broadcasting and cinema, on the representation and construction of Scotland, the contemporary communications environment, and the languages used in the media. Other chapters consider television drama, soap opera, broadcast comedy, gender, the media and politics, race and ethnicity, gender, popular music, sport and new technology, the place of Gaelic, and current issues in screen fiction. The book offers a comprehensive picture of the media in Scotland and is the first to do so. It raises a number of important questions about how Scotland presents itself at home and abroad as well as analyzing questions of politics, economics and governance. Among the contributors are David Bruce, Myra Macdonald, Brian McNair, Hugh O’Donnell, Mike Russell, Philip Schlesinger and Brian Wilson.