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The patient experience of radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR) simulation is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the patient experience of MR simulation in comparison to computed tomography (CT) simulation, identifying the quality of patient experience and pathway changes which could improve patient experience outcomes.
Materials and Methods:
MR simulation was acquired for 46 anal and rectal cancer patients. Patient experience questionnaires were provided directly after MR simulation. Questionnaire responses were assessed after 33 patients (cohort one). Changes to the scanning pathway were identified and implemented. The impact of changes was assessed by cohort two (13 patients).
Response rates were 85% (cohort one) and 54% (cohort two). 75% of cohort one respondents found the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experience to be better or similar to their CT experience. Implemented changes included routine use of blankets, earplugs and headphones, music and feet-first positioning and further MRI protocol optimisation. All cohort two respondents found the MRI experience to be better or similar to the CT experience.
MR simulation can be a comfortable and positive experience that is comparable to that of standard radiotherapy CT simulation. Special attention is required due to the fundamental differences between CT and MRI scanning.
The randomized, controlled, phase 3b ALPINE study evaluated efficacy and safety of a 2-month formulation of aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) initiated with a 1-day regimen during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia; paliperidone palmitate (PP) was included as an active control. The primary efficacy outcome, within-group change from baseline in PANSS total score at 4 weeks, was previously reported. Here we report additional exploratory PANSS subscale endpoints and patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
Adults aged 18–65 years were enrolled as inpatients and randomized to AL 1064 mg q8wk or PP 156 mg q4wk and discharged after 2 weeks of study treatment if clinically stable. Patients were followed as outpatients through week 25. Exploratory efficacy endpoints were PANSS subscale (Positive, Negative, and General) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores. The Burden Assessment Scale was administered to patients’ nonprofessional caregivers (family member or friend). Exploratory PROs (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form [Q-LES-Q-SF] and Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire) were assessed during the outpatient period. Within-group changes in PANSS subscales and CGI-S scores from baseline through week 25 were analyzed for AL and PP using mixed models with repeated measures. PROs were summarized based on observed data.
In total, 200 patients were randomized (AL, n=99; PP, n=101); 99 (AL, n=56; PP, n=43) completed the 25-week study. PANSS Positive, Negative, and General subscale scores improved with AL treatment as measured by change from baseline to week 25 (least squares [LS] mean [95% CI]: Positive, −7.0 [−8.1, −6.0]; Negative, −3.7 [−4.7, −2.8]; General, −11.1 [−12.7, −9.5]), as did CGI-S scores (LS mean [95% CI] change at week 25: –1.2 [–1.4 –1.0]). Caregiver burden decreased over the treatment period, with the largest decline noted at week 9 for AL patients’ caregivers (mean change from baseline at week 9: −8.4; week 25: −8.9). Over weeks 5, 9, and 17, 70.8%−74.7% of AL-treated patients were somewhat or very satisfied with treatment. Mean Q-LES-Q-SF total scores were stable. With PP, PANSS subscale and CGI-S scores improved from baseline to study end (LS mean [95% CI] changes at week 25: Positive, −7.1 [−8.2, −5.9]; Negative, −3.5 [−4.6, −2.5]; General, −10.4 [−12.1, −8.6]; CGI-S, −1.2 [−1.5, −1.0]). Mean caregiver burden decreased (week 9: −8.8; week 25: −9.2). Most PP patients were satisfied or very satisfied with treatment (64.7%−69.3% at weeks 5, 9, and 17), and mean Q-LES-Q-SF total scores were stable.
In ALPINE, patients who initiated AL or PP in the hospital and continued treatment during outpatient care experienced improvement in schizophrenia symptoms and reported satisfaction with medication, decreased caregiver burden, and stable quality of life.
To describe a pilot project infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal 2-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 New York counties, including New York City.
A 3-component remote IPC assessment: (1) screening tool; (2) telephone IPC checklist; and (3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (ie, “COVIDeo”).
In total, 92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist: 52 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26 (28%) of 92 assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed: personal protective equipment (PPE) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took ∼1 hour each and reached an estimated 4 times as many SNFs as on-site visits in a similar time frame.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video were timely and feasible methods of assessing the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across New York State and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Scholars and policymakers long believed that norms of global information openness and private-sector governance helped to sustain and promote liberalism. These norms are being increasingly contested within liberal democracies. In this article, we argue that a key source of debate over the Liberal International Information Order (LIIO), a sub-order of the Liberal International Order (LIO), is generated internally by “self-undermining feedback effects,” that is, mechanisms through which institutional arrangements undermine their own political conditions of survival over time. Empirically, we demonstrate how global governance of the Internet, transnational disinformation campaigns, and domestic information governance interact to sow the seeds of this contention. In particular, illiberal states converted norms of openness into a vector of attack, unsettling political bargains in liberal states concerning the LIIO. More generally, we set out a broader research agenda to show how the international relations discipline might better understand institutional change as well as the informational aspects of the current crisis in the LIO.
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, arsenic was used as an embalming agent in the United States. In 1996, Konefes and McGee brought the potential danger of arsenic poisoning during excavation to the attention of archaeologists. They developed methodology that was later refined by the present authors. This article discusses the history of arsenic as an embalming agent, explores socioeconomic and demographic factors that might suggest the presence of arsenic in certain burials, and presents methods for testing arsenic in archaeological contexts. We also discuss environmental impact mitigation considerations and review examples of arsenic testing in archaeological contexts.
Traditionally, Roman temples and shrines in Britain have been contextualised in relation to wider ‘Roman’ religious practices. Until recently, considerations of architectural form and named deities have dominated discussions. The wider turn in archaeological discourse recognising ritual in everyday contexts has highlighted the importance of lived experience and landscape practice in shaping belief. Here we reflect on the implications of such ideas when approaching ritual practice at Roman temples, using a recently excavated example from Wiltshire, southern Britain, as a case study. The exceptional artefactual assemblages from the site demonstrate the importance of local and regional landscape practices and belief in shaping ritual practice in a sacred space. In addition, geophysical survey and analysis of Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) finds suggests that those occupying the landscape had long-term access to wealth. Deposition in the temple itself indicates the continuing importance attached to prehistoric objects in the Roman period, but also to the adoption of new votive practices of miniaturisation, mutilation and sacrifice. These rituals, although part of wider grammars of religious behaviour, had their roots in specific local contexts. Our detailed analyses provide a picture of a temple dedicated to a previously unknown local god, Bregneus, framed against that of an active community involved in farming, iron processing, quarrying, hunting and woodland management.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent an ongoing problem for all clinics. Children’s clinics have waiting rooms that include toys and activities to entertain children, possibly representing reservoirs for HAIs. This study focuses on a newly constructed children’s outpatient clinic associated with a teaching hospital. We studied waiting room bacterial colonization of floors and play devices from the last phase of construction through 6 months of clinical use. Methods: Waiting room areas on the first 2 floors of the facility were studied due to high patient volume in those areas. In total, 16 locations were sampled: 11 on floors and 5 on play items. Using sterile double-transport swabs, all locations were sampled on 5 separate occasions over 2 months during the last phase of construction and 13 times over 6 months after the clinic was opened. After collection swabs were placed on ice, transported to a microbiology lab, and used to inoculate Hardy Diagnostics Cdiff Banana Broth (for Clostridium difficile - Cdiff), CHROM MRSA agar (for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA), Pseudomonas isolation agar (for Pseudomonas spp and P. aeruginosa), and tryptic soy agar to detect Bacillus spp. Media were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C and were scored for bacterial presence based on observation of colonies or change in the medium. Results: During the construction phase, waiting-room-floor bacterial colonies were dominated by Bacillus spp, and first-floor waiting rooms had nearly 7 times more colonies than those on the second floor (P < .05). A similar pattern was observed for C. difficile and MRSA. No Pseudomonas spp were observed during construction. Once patients were present, Bacillus spp contamination dropped for the first floor, but increased for the second floor. All other bacterial types (C. difficile, MRSA, Pseudomonas spp, and P. aeruginosa) increased on the second floor after the clinic opened (eg, from 23% to 42% for C. difficile and from 7% to 46% for MRSA; P < .05). The play devices showed small increases in bacterial load after clinic opening, most notably Pseudomonas spp. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a shift from bacterial species associated with soil (eg, Bacillus spp) toward species commonly associated with humans occurred in waiting rooms after construction in this children’s outpatient clinic. Increases for MRSA, Pseudomonas spp, and P. aeruginosa were linked to patient presence. These data suggest that patients, their families, and clinic staff transport bacteria into clinic waiting rooms. This outpatient clinic environmental contamination may increase potential for HAIs and may represent a target for intervention.
Background: The bacteria that inhabit outpatient healthcare facilities influence patient outcomes and recovery, although the diversity and quantity of these bacterial communities is largely unknown. Whether differences in bacterial presence exist in individual medical specialty units of an outpatient clinic is also largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare bacterial species found in the general medicine and pulmonary units of an outpatient children’s clinic associated with a teaching hospital. Methods: In total, 6 locations (4 floor sites, counters, air ducts) were sampled in 3 rooms in the pulmonary (PUL) unit and 3 rooms in the general medicine (GM) unit on 13 days over a 6-month period. Sterile double transport swabs were utilized, transported on ice to a microbiology lab, and used to inoculate Hardy Diagnostics Cdiff Banana Broth (for Clostridium difficile), CHROM MRSA agar (for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]), eosin methylene blue (Levine-type, for Lac+ gram negatives [GN]), and Pseudomonas isolation agar (for Pseudomonas spp and P. aeruginosa [PS and PSA]). Media were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C and were scored for bacterial presence based on colonial observation. Results: The presence of bacteria isolated from GM and PUL units differed by species and location. Based on the percentage of positive swabs, the presence of GN was widespread in both units (Fig 1). Additionally, bacterial presence was greatest on the floors (GN ranged from 72% to 85% on floors in the 2 units), whereas counters had fewer positive swabs (GN ranged from 23% to 38% on counters), and swabs from return air ducts rarely led to bacterial growth. The 1 case in which swabs from the PUL unit resulted in higher levels of bacterial growth than for the GM unit was for PSA (GM, 8%; PUL, 13%). C. difficile detection was the same on both units (ie, 35% of floor samples showed contamination). Conclusions: The levels of environmental bacterial presence observed for these clinic units differed in some cases by unit and ranged from not detectable to very high levels. Detection of C. difficile on 35% of floor samples in both units could be problematic. Additionally, for the PUL unit, contamination of 13% of floor samples by PSA should raise concerns because many patients in this clinic have cystic fibrosis (CF). Although many CF patients are colonized by PSA, others may potentially contract an infection by this pathogen from the clinical environment. This observation supports current infection control recommendations for CF patients in outpatient settings.
In this note, we establish the applicability and effectiveness of a recently developed approach to the recovery of nonlinear water waves from pressure measurements by proving that it is applicable to the celebrated extreme Stokes wave.
Delirium is recognized as a key healthcare target for our increasingly aged society. Improved management of delirium and related neuropsychiatric presentations can allow for significant improvements in outcomes but requires fundamental change in the structure of healthcare services. There is a pressing need for cognitive-friendly hospital programmes that can increase awareness of delirium, provide better education around its management, improve detection in real-world practice, and promote evidence-based management of cognitive problems in the general hospital. We outline key elements of delirium-friendly services that span interventions in our day-to-day clinical care of individual patients all the way to wider organizational practices.
Conventional wisdom holds that landed elites oppose democratization. Whether they fear rising wages, labor mobility or land redistribution, landowners have historically repressed agricultural workers and sustained autocracy. What might change landowning elites’ preferences for dictatorship and reduce their opposition to democracy? Change requires reducing landowners’ need to maintain political control over labor. This transition occurs when mechanization reduces the demand for agricultural workers, eliminating the need for labor-repressive policies. We explain how the adoption of labor-saving technology in agriculture alters landowners’ political preferences for different regimes, so that the more mechanized the agricultural sector, the more likely is democracy to emerge and survive. Our theoretical argument offers a parsimonious revision to Moore’s thesis that applies to the global transformation of agriculture since his Social Origins first appeared, and results from our cross-national statistical analyses strongly suggest that a positive relationship between agricultural mechanization and democracy does in fact exist.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), TxTM is a scientific philosophy promoting interdisciplinary approaches towards exponential advances in community and population health. Objectives are to detail the model, pilot funding mechanism, early research findings and infrastructure investments. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The health research system has widely acknowledged challenges that can delay research translation to systems that advance health for chronically disadvantaged health disparity population groups. MSM’s vision is to lead the creation and advancement of health equity. The vision-aligned strategic plan prioritized formalization of a TX TM implementation priority. The study population was the institution’s research faculty and leaders, research administration, and communication arm. Through a cross-institutional working group, a plan was deployed to 1) assess the institutional landscape, 2) review the grey and peer reviewed literature on translational research and 3) invest in a pilot research funding mechanism. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Over $700K has been invested in TX TM implementation. Over half of research faculty completed an institutional landscape assessment to identify translational research expertise, interests and points of interest in new collaboration. The most frequently cited collaborative research interests were clinical research with human subjects, patient-centered outcomes and laboratory-based research with human subjects/specimens. Funded multidisciplinary and/or community-engaged pilot studies investigate the role for circadian rhythms and shift work, cultural variables influencing mental health among Haitians living in the US and integrating prescription reconciliation telehealth in primary care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: TX TM requires interdisciplinary collaboration across translational research spheres and beyond the academy. Institutional investment, infrastructure support and senior-level champions are central to awareness and rewarding such scholarship towards scaling approaches that advance health equity. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Coined at Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM), Tx TM symbolizes an approach and scientific philosophy designed to intentionally promote and support convergence of interdisciplinary approaches and scientists to stimulate exponential advances for the health of diverse communities.
For about a century there has been a modest research effort to explain the nature of prodigies and savants. Savant research emerged out of the medical field and centered on deficit/remediation. Research with prodigies generally consists of case studies by psychologists with an interest in the manifestation and development of extreme talent, sometimes as part of the “gifted child” movement in the United States, more recently as anomalies in developmental psychology.
Research into both phenomena evolved to incorporate new questions, including debates over the role of general versus specific intellectual abilities in talent development. This chapter summarizes and reviews research on prodigies and savants. It also reviews what, to date, has been found about the nature and interplay of general and specific intellectual strengths and weaknesses more generally, offering a possible role for both specific talent and general ability.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Bog bodies are among the best-known archaeological finds worldwide. Much of the work on these often extremely well-preserved human remains has focused on forensics, whereas the environmental setting of the finds has been largely overlooked. This applies to both the ‘physical’ and ‘cultural’ landscape and constitutes a significant problem since the vast spatial and temporal scales over which the practice appeared demonstrate that contextual assessments are of the utmost importance for our explanatory frameworks. In this article we develop best practice guidelines for the contextual analysis of bog bodies, after assessing the current state of research and presenting the results of three recent case studies including the well-known finds of Lindow Man in the United Kingdom, Bjældskovdal (Tollund Man and Elling Woman) in Denmark, and Yde Girl in the Netherlands. Three spatial and chronological scales are distinguished and linked to specific research questions and methods. This provides a basis for further discussion and a starting point for developing approaches to bog body finds and future discoveries, while facilitating and optimizing the re-analysis of previous studies, making it possible to compare deposition sites across time and space.
We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
In March 2017, the New Jersey Department of Health received reports of 3 patients who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis knee pain at the same private outpatient facility in New Jersey. The risk of septic arthritis resulting from intra-articular injection is low. However, outbreaks of septic arthritis associated with unsafe injection practices in outpatient settings have been reported.
An infection prevention assessment of the implicated facility’s practices was conducted because of the ongoing risk to public health. The assessment included an environmental inspection of the facility, staff interviews, infection prevention practice observations, and a medical record and office document review. A call for cases was disseminated to healthcare providers in New Jersey to identify patients treated at the facility who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections.
We identified 41 patients with septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections. Cultures of synovial fluid or tissue from 15 of these 41 case patients (37%) recovered bacteria consistent with oral flora. The infection prevention assessment of facility practices identified multiple breaches of recommended infection prevention practices, including inadequate hand hygiene, unsafe injection practices, and poor cleaning and disinfection practices. No additional cases were identified after infection prevention recommendations were implemented by the facility.
Aseptic technique is imperative when handling, preparing, and administering injectable medications to prevent microbial contamination.
This investigation highlights the importance of adhering to infection prevention recommendations. All healthcare personnel who prepare, handle, and administer injectable medications should be trained in infection prevention and safe injection practices.
In late summer, sometime between cal a.d. 340–405, a hoard of tightly packed, stacked copper-alloy vessels was deposited in the Vale of Pewsey, Wiltshire. The corrosion of the vessels allowed for the preservation of delicate plant macrofossils and pollen. Analysis of this material has provided insights into the date, season and context of this act of structured deposition. A second hoard of similar vessels was deposited in the fourth or fifth century only a few miles away at Wilcot. The hoards and their deposition relate to Romano-British lifeways, at a time when the region was on the cusp of a dramatic period of change. The distribution of late Roman coins and belt fittings offers further insights into the social and economic character of Wiltshire at their times of deposition.
Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). We identify participant-centricity and trustworthiness as the most important features of an MIC and discuss the implications for those seeking to create a sustainable, useful, and widely available collection of linked resources for research and other purposes.