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Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
The periparturient period is one of the most critical periods in the productive life of a dairy cow, and is the period when dairy cows are most susceptible to developing new intramammary infections (IMI) leading to mastitis. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been detected in milk during mastitis but their presence in colostrum and milk in the immediate postpartum period has had limited investigation. The hypothesis was tested that APP are a constituent of colostrum and milk during this period. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine each APP's concentration in colostrum and milk collected daily from the first to tenth day following calving in 22 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Haptoglobin was assessed in individual quarters and composite milk samples while M-SAA3 and CRP concentration were determined in composite milk samples. Change in Hp in relation to the high abundance proteins during the transition from colostrum to milk were evaluated by 1 and 2 dimension electrophoresis and western blot. In 80% of the cows all APPs were detected in colostrum on the first day following parturition at moderately high levels but gradually decreased to minimal values in the milk by the 6th day after calving. The remaining cows (20%) showed different patterns in the daily milk APP concentrations and when an elevated level is detected could reflect the presence of IMI. Demonstration that APP are present in colostrum and milk following parturition but fall to low levels within 4 days means that elevated APP after this time could be biomarkers of post parturient mastitis allowing early intervention to reduce disease on dairy farms.
Imidazoles present a tunable, versatile and economical platform for the development of novel liquid solvents and polymer membranes for CO2 capture. An overview of our studies in this area is presented, with emphasis on characterization of structure-property relationships in imidazole-based materials through both experimental and computational studies. To this end, a growing library of systematically varied imidazole compounds has been synthesized using only commercial available starting materials and straightforward reactions. Using this library of compounds, we have sought to understand and develop predictive models for thermophysical properties relating to process design, including: density, viscosity, vapor pressure, pKa and CO2 absorption capacity. Furthermore, we have discovered that imidazoles are stable in the presence of SO2 and can form reversible 1:1 adducts, which can be beneficial as SO2 is typically present at ppm levels alongside CO2 in flue gas from coal-fired power plants.
In 1967, all London medical schools were separate institutions based on their teaching hospitals, many of which had moved from their original central sites. Successive attempts at merger met resistance, but by 2000 there were just five undergraduate schools, all incorporated in large multi-faculty colleges with the exception of St George's.
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
In the north-west, Imperial College absorbed St Mary's Hospital in 1989 and in 1997 also took in Charing Cross and Westminster Hospitals (already merged in 1983).
Charing Cross Hospital
Early development of general practice teaching
Charing Cross Hospital medical school started in the mid-nineteenth century at the hospital building near The Strand, London. It was small, taking twenty to thirty new students annually. General practice teaching started in the 1950s when students were invited to stay with a general practitioner (usually an alumnus) for three weeks in their final year. Most practices were outside London (often rural), enabling students to experience the daily life of a general practitioner, including out of hours work and living with his family.
Charing Cross Hospital moved to Fulham in 1974, and the annual school intake increased to 120. The final-year general practice attachment expanded accordingly and the Dean, Professor Glenister, initiated plans for an undergraduate general practice teaching unit. The education committee of the north and west London faculty of the RCGP took great interest in the developments, especially as the GMC was threatening to remove accreditation from schools that did not have departments of general practice.
And thus have these naked Nantucketers, these sea hermits, issuing from their ant-hill in the sea, overrun and conquered the watery world like so many Alexanders; parcelling out among them the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, as the three pirate powers did Poland. Let America add Mexico to Texas, and pile Cuba upon Canada; let the English overswarm all India, and hang out their blazing banner from the sun; two thirds of this terraqueous globe are the Nantucketer's.
On the outside walls of the Whaling Museum in New Bedford, Massachusetts, a stone-carved inscription proclaims the success of the whaling industry in “lighting up the world.“ This claim is literal in that it describes how whaling provided the oil that fuelled the street lamps of Europe's cities and powered many other facets of the Industrial Revolution. But it is also metaphorical in its suggestion that the industry expanded European and American understanding of the geography, resources and cultures of the world's remote oceans, while at the same time exposing those cultures to the “light” of European expansion and global capitalism. In more recent times, the same claims have been taken up by historians under the rubric of globalization. Thus, Granville Allen Mawer in his history of South Seas whaling celebrates ocean-going sperm whalers as pioneers who “broke whaling out of the ice of the North Atlantic and led it south to become the world's first truly global industry.“
This essay re-examines the link between whaling and globalization from the perspective of those whom Eric Wolf famously called “the people without history.“5 In the case of Pacific whaling these were Maori, Native Hawaiians and other indigenous islanders, many of whom encountered Europeans for the first time in the context of whaling and other maritime resource industries. The essay is not, however, an exhaustive account of indigenous engagement with whaling in all parts of the Pacific. Rather, it is an exploratory piece that aims to open up the conversation on whaling and globalization and to suggest avenues for further research. Using case studies from New Zealand and Hawai'i, I show how a focus on global connections can shed new light on the relationship between maritime industries and broader world-historical processes, such as colonialism and cultural contact.
We sought to determine and compare rates of pediatric mental health presentations and associated costs in emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta.
We examined 16 154 presentations by 12 589 patients (patient age ≤ 17 yr) between April 2002 and March 2006 using the Ambulatory Care Classification System, a province-wide database for Alberta. The following variables of interest were extracted: patient demographics, discharge diagnoses, triage level, disposition, recorded costs for ED care, and institutional classification and location (i.e., rural v. urban, pediatric v. general EDs).
A 15% increase in pediatric mental health presentations was observed during the study period. Youth aged 13-17 years consistently represented the most common age group for first presentation to the ED (83.3%). Of the 16 154 recorded presentations, 21.4% were related to mood disorders and 32.5% to anxiety disorders. Presentations for substance misuse or abuse were the most prevalent reasons for a mental health-related visit (41.3%). Multiple visits accounted for more than one-third of all presentations. Presentations for mood disorders were more common in patients with multiple compared with single visits (29.3% v. 16.9%), and substance abuse or misuse presentations were more common in patients with single compared with multiple visits (47.4% v. 30.5%). The total direct ED costs for mental health presentations during the study period was Can$3.5 million.
This study provides comprehensive data on trends of pediatric mental health presentation, and highlights the costs and return presentations in this population. Psychiatric and medical care provided in the ED for pediatric mental health emergencies should be evaluated to determine quality of care and its relationship with return visits and costs.
Stingray spine use in Maya human bloodletting rituals has long been an accepted phenomenon. Recent work has suggested that intact spines may have been used and that the symptoms resulting from envenomation were an important part of the bloodletting ritual. Zoological and medical research, however, indicate that stingray toxins pose a more serious threat to human health than mere pain and inflammation. Medical studies conducted to track injuries resulting from stingray attacks report that some two-thirds of all cases result in tissue necrosis. Reconciling the use of stingray spines by the Maya with the physiological effects they present is crucial if we are to understand how the Maya viewed toxic marine materials and why they incorporated them in their ritual behaviors. Correlations between political events and stingray spine use may hold the key for understanding how these objects were articulated into the larger social and political sphere. We provide a discussion of the effects of stingray envenomation and the health risks inherent to the ritual use of stingray spines as bloodletters among the ancient Maya. Finally, we offer some possible explanations for the role of cleaned and defleshed spines in ritual contexts.
Background: Studies indicate that diet may be related to the occurrence of brain lesions. The cross-sectional association between food intake and brain lesion volumes in late-life depression was examined in a cohort of elderly individuals with current or prior depression.
Methods: Food intake was assessed in 54 elderly vascular depression subjects (vascular depression defined by presence of hyperintensities on brain MRI) using a Block 1998 food frequency questionnaire. Food and kilocalorie intake were determined. Brain lesion volumes were calculated from MRI. Subjects were aged 60 or over and were participants in a longitudinal study of major depression. All subjects received psychiatric assessment and treatment, and medical comorbidity assessments.
Results: High-fat dairy and whole grains were significantly positively correlated with brain lesion volume, while other food groups were not significantly associated with lesion volume. In multivariable analyses, controlling for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes and total kilocalories, the positive association with lesion volume remained significant for both high-fat dairy and whole grains.
Conclusions: High fat dairy and whole grain consumption may be associated with brain lesions in elderly subjects with depression.
The ability to recognise fear is impaired in people with damage to the
amygdala and, interestingly, in adult psychopathy. Here we confirm that
deficits in recognising fear exist in children with psychopathic traits. We
show for the first time that, as with patients with amygdala damage, this
deficit can be temporarily corrected by simply asking them to focus on the
eyes of other people. These data support models of psychopathy that
emphasise specific dysfunction of the amygdala and suggest an innovative
approach for intervening early in the development of psychopathy.
This paper views the prosecution of the Newfoundlandfishery, c. 1500-1900, from a British perspective. It considers the range, quality and utility of the evidence on the fishery in English archives and primary printed sources. The qualitative information provided by practitioners, observers and pamphleteers is examined initially. The discussion thenfocusses on the quantitative material relating to the fishery from the late seventeenth century onwards available in the Colonial Office papers in the Public Record Office. Some tentative results from preliminary analyses of these statistical data are presented. These indicate that the quantity of fish harvested in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries fluctuated widely but generally increased through the period, attaining levels higher than previous estimates have shown. The catch rate is also examined to test the relationship between catch, effort and stocks. Notwithstanding the quality and volume of the primary sources, the paper concludes by suggesting that a greater research effort in the English archives will yield the data necessary to construct a rounded study of the impact of human prédation on the fish stocks of Newfoundland.
Historians of the fisheries conducted from the British Isles have two main obstacles. First, this is a vast subject, due not just to its ubiquitous nature but also to the complex range of activities involved. At any given time many types of fisheries were prosecuted. While there were marked regional variations in technique, catch and market, numerous contrasting forms might be conducted concurrently from a single port or locality. Second, there are practical problems regarding the collection and interpretation of data, for the primary sources relating to Britain's fisheries are extensive, take many different forms and are scattered in repositories throughout the UK and beyond. The evidence is also uneven, both temporally (comparatively little relates to the pre-1700 period) and topically - some fisheries, and some ports, generated more, or more useful, records.
The fishery and fish trade conducted by Britons (largely Englishmen) from Newfoundland illustrates these problems. While this distinctive trade has received more attention from historians than most British fishing interests, the factors governing its scale, character and significance are still imperfectly understood. This is partly due to the complexities of the political, economic, social and environmental issues that arise in examining it. But it also reflects the abundance, deficiencies and idiosyncrasies of the primary records pertaining to the business.
The astigmatid mite species, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, was found to occur in meiobenthic collections from the Mdloti Estuary on the eastern seaboard of southern Africa. To examine whether these mites are actually components of estuarine systems or the result of contamination of collecting and laboratory materials, special sterilization procedures were incorporated into the collection protocol. Samples employing sterilization procedures still yielded Tyrophagus mites, providing evidence for their existence in the estuarine sediments. The origination of these mites in estuarine and fringe marine systems, in general, is discussed. These findings are significant in terms of the potential trophic importance of Tyrophagus mites.