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In a cohort of inpatients with hematologic malignancy and positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Clostridium difficile tests, we found that clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar between these groups. The method of testing is unlikely to predict infection in this population, and PCR-positive results should be treated with concern.
Cathars have long been regarded as posing the most organised challenge to orthodox Catholicism in the medieval West, even as a "counter-Church" to orthodoxy in southern France and northern Italy. Their beliefs, understood to be inspired by Balkan dualism, are often seen as the most radical among medieval heresies. However, recent work has fiercely challenged this paradigm, arguing instead that "Catharism" was a construct of its persecutors, mis-named and mis-represented by generations of subsequent scholarship, and its supposedly radical views were a fantastical projection of the fears of orthodox commentators. This volume brings together a wide range of views from some of the most distinguished international scholars in the field, in order to address the debate directly while also opening up new areas for research. Focussing on dualism and anti-materialist beliefs in southern France, Italy and the Balkans, it considers a number of crucial issues. These include: what constitutes popular belief; how (and to what extent) societies of the past were based on the persecution of dissidents; and whether heresy can be seen as an invention of orthodoxy. At the same time, the essays shed new light on some key aspects of the political, cultural, religious and economic relationships between the Balkans and more western regions of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Antonio Sennis isSenior Lecturer in Medieval History at University College London Contributors: John H. Arnold, Peter Biller, Caterina Bruschi, David d'Avray, Jörg Feuchter, Bernard Hamilton, Robert I. Moore, MarkGregory Pegg, Rebecca Rist, Lucy Sackville, Antonio Sennis, Claire Taylor, Julien Théry-Astruc, Yuri Stoyanov
We have built an imaging polarimeter for use at mid-infrared wavelengths (i.e. N band or 8–13 μm). The detecting element is a 128 × 128 element Si:Ga Focal Plane Array, supplied by Amber Engineering, USA. The polarimeter itself provides diffraction limited images on a 4-m class telescope and has a field of view of about 32 arcsec of sky with 0·25 arcsec pixels. We describe the optical design, control electronics, observing modes and detector sensitivities. Also presented are some observational results to demonstrate the power of this new imaging polarimetric system.
To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults.
Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC–tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors.
Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974–1976.
Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity.
Mean total 25(OH)D concentration among participants was 21·7 (sd 8·9) ng/ml. Among males, 25(OH)D was associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (natural log-transformed, β=−0·011, P=0·004) after adjustment for BMI. However, these associations were not present among females (P for sex interaction=0·005).
We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a healthy, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex-specific effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.
Changes in corpus callosum area and thickness have been reported in
bipolar disorder. Imaging and limited neuropathological data suggest
possible abnormalities in myelination and/or glial function.
To compare corpus callosum area, thickness and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) T1 signal intensity in patients with bipolar disorder and
A total of 48 patients with euthymic bipolar disorder and 46 healthy
controls underwent MRI analysis of callosal midsagittal area, callosal
thickness and T1 signal intensity.
The bipolar group had smaller overall and subregional callosal areas and
correspondingly reduced callosal width than the control group. Age
correlated negatively with callosal area in the control group but not in
the bipolar group. Signal intensity was higher in women than in men in
both groups. Signal intensity was reduced in women, but not in men, in
the bipolar group.
Observed differences probably relate to diagnosis rather than mood state
and bipolar disorder appears to result in morphometric change that
overrides changes seen in normal ageing. Intensity changes are consistent
with possible altered myelination or glial function. A gender-dependent
factor appears to operate and to interact with diagnosis.
Transnational human rights litigation under the Alien Tort Statute (ATS) has been plagued by the overarching question of the domestic legal status of customary international law (CIL). Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. is the Supreme Court's second installment on the ATS. Like Sosa v. Alvarez-Machainbefore it, Kiobel does not expressly address the domestic legal status of CIL, but it does provide clues. Those clues suggest two insights: the Court views CIL as external to U.S. law, rather than as part of federal common law, and the role of CIL in future cases may be affected less by arguments about CIL's status as federal common law than by arguments about congressional intent.
As it was originally proposed, the extended phenotype comprised ‘all effects of a gene upon the world’ (Dawkins, 1989) and portrayed how the effects of a gene borne by an organism influenced its biotic and abiotic environments. The consideration of indirect genetic effects, in which an organism’s phenotype becomes part of the selective environment of conspecifics (Wolf et al., 1998), was developed rigorously in the population genetics context and the concept subsequently extended to include effects on heterospecifics (Whitham et al., 2003). The extended phenotype concept has been adopted as a framework by some evolutionary biologists and ecologists to study the roles of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) since Whitham et al. (2003) used heritable variation in tissue tannin concentrations among Populus species and hybrids to develop the concept of community and ecosystem genetics (Antonovics, 1992).
Many studies of how genetically determined variation in plant traits, including PSMs, drive associated community phenotypes and processes, have been based on differences between hybrids (Dungey et al., 2000; Hochwender & Fritz, 2004; Bailey et al., Chapter 14). Fewer studies have investigated the effects on extended phenotypes of continuously varying PSMs or between known genotypes within a species (Whitham et al., 2006; Schweitzer et al., 2008; Barbour et al., 2009; O’Reilly-Wapstra et al., Chapter 2). A convenient approach to identification and utilisation of genotypic variation for the study of multiple effects of PSMs is provided by the use of genetic polymorphisms. A polymorphism can be defined as occurring when a trait such as a morphological or biochemical character exists in two or more distinct forms in a randomly mating population within a species (Ford, 1975). The approach is particularly useful in species that cannot be readily cloned. Here, we review examples of how intra-specific variation in a particular group of PSMs, the monoterpenes, has informed our understanding of how PSMs can play multiple ecological roles and mediate the extended phenotype of plants. The monoterpenes are a group of low-molecular-weight, volatile terpenoids which form a very diverse group in terms of number of compounds, structure and function (Gershenzon & Dudareva, 2007). We use variation within species which are polymorphic for concentrations or presence of monoterpenes to provide an insight into their ecological ramifications and larger-scale consequences, against the background of intra-specific variation in other traits.