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Methionine, an essential sulphur-containing amino acid (SAA), plays an integral role in many metabolic processes. Evidence for the methionine requirements of adult dogs is limited, and we employed the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method to estimate dietary methionine requirements in Labrador retrievers (n 21). Using semi-purified diets, the mean requirement was 0·55 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·71) g/4184 kJ. In a subsequent parallel design study, three groups of adult Labrador retrievers (n 52) were fed semi-purified diets with 0·55 g/4184 kJ (test diet 1), 0·71 g/4184 kJ (test diet 2) or 1·37 g/4184 kJ (control diet) of methionine for 32 weeks to assess the long-term consequences of feeding. The total SAA content (2·68 g/4184 kJ) was maintained through dietary supplementation of cystine. Plasma methionine did not decrease in test group and increased significantly on test diet 1 in weeks 8 and 16 compared with control. Reducing dietary methionine did not have a significant effect on whole blood, plasma or urinary taurine or plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Significant effects in both test diets were observed for cholesterol, betaine and dimethylglycine. In conclusion, feeding methionine at the IAAO-estimated mean was sufficient to maintain plasma methionine over 32 weeks when total SAA was maintained. However, choline oxidation may have increased to support plasma methionine and have additional consequences for lipid metabolism. While the IAAO can be employed to assess essential amino acid requirements, such as methionine in the dog using semi-purified diets, further work is required to establish safe levels for commercial diet formats.
Around a quarter of patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs) will develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the dramatic increase in ICU admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians are likely to see a rise in post-ICU PTSD cases in the coming months. Post-ICU PTSD can present various challenges to clinicians, and no clinical guidelines have been published for delivering trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy with this population. In this article, we describe how to use cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD), a first line treatment for PTSD recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Using clinical case examples, we outline the key techniques involved in CT-PTSD, and describe their application to treating patients with PTSD following ICU.
Key learning aims
(1) To recognise PTSD following admissions to intensive care units (ICUs).
(2) To understand how the ICU experience can lead to PTSD development.
(3) To understand how Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) cognitive model of PTSD can be applied to post-ICU PTSD.
(4) To be able to apply cognitive therapy for PTSD to patients with post-ICU PTSD.
This volume has achieved a large coverage of the experimentally well-studied areas of the temperate and subtropical coasts of the world (see Figure 1.1) – venturing into the tropics in some regions (Chapter 14, South-East Asia) and including mangroves (Chapter 17). Coral reef systems have not been considered. Much of the emphasis has been on rocky habitats as this is where the majority of experimental work on interactions has been done (but see Chapter 6). As well as reviewing regions where there has been a long history of experimental research (e.g., Chapters 2–4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16), areas of emerging experimental research in the last twenty-five years (e.g., Chapter 8, western Mediterranean; Chapter 12, south-east Pacific) and understudied regions (e.g., Chapter 7, Argentina; Chapter 14, South-East Asia) have also been included, allowing more comprehensive insights into the processes important for shaping these communities. In this short synthesis chapter, we first consider the main processes determining patterns covered by the previous chapters. We then consider major human impacts in these regions. Finally, we identify gaps in knowledge and make some suggestions for the way forward. We make the case for combining phylogeographic studies with macro-ecology and biogeography, coupled with well-designed hypothesis testing experiments, to better understand processes generating patterns on micro-evolutionary (hundreds to thousands of years) and ecological (up to hundreds of years) time scales.
We examine how migration is influenced by temperature and precipitation variability, and the extent to which the receipt of a cash transfer affects the use of migration as an adaptation strategy. Climate data is merged with georeferenced panel data (2010–2014) on individual migration collected from the Zambian Child Grant Program (CGP) sites. We use the person-year dataset to identify the direct and heterogeneous causal effects of the CGP on mobility. Having access to cash transfers doubles the rate of male, short-distance moves during cool periods, irrespective of wealth. Receipt of cash transfers (among wealthier households) during extreme heat causes an additional retention of males. Cash transfers positively spur long-distance migration under normal climate conditions in the long term. They also facilitate short-distance responses to climate, but not long-distance responses that might be demanded by future climate change.
Ice scallops are a small-scale (5–20 cm) quasi-periodic ripple pattern that occurs at the ice–water interface. Previous work has suggested that scallops form due to a self-reinforcing interaction between an evolving ice-surface geometry, an adjacent turbulent flow field and the resulting differential melt rates that occur along the interface. In this study, we perform a series of laboratory experiments in a refrigerated flume to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms of scallop formation and evolution in high resolution. Using particle image velocimetry, we probe an evolving ice–water boundary layer at sub-millimetre scales and 15 Hz frequency. Our data reveal three distinct regimes of ice–water interface evolution: a transition from flat to scalloped ice; an equilibrium scallop geometry; and an adjusting scallop interface. We find that scalloped-ice geometry produces a clear modification to the ice–water boundary layer, characterized by a time-mean recirculating eddy feature that forms in the scallop trough. Our primary finding is that scallops form due to a self-reinforcing feedback between the ice-interface geometry and shear production of turbulent kinetic energy in the flow interior. The length of this shear production zone is therefore hypothesized to set the scallop wavelength.
This year 2018 has great historical and current significance for stellar spectral classification. Two hundred years ago in Reggio Emilia, Italy, was born Angelo Secchi, a pioneer of observing and classifying the spectra of stars. At the beginning of the IAU, almost a hundred years ago, one of its original Commissions was entitled the Spectral Classification of Stars, from which was generated Commission 45, Spectral Classification and Multi-band Colour Indices. And seventy-five years ago, was published the system-changing MKK, An Atlas of Stellar Spectra. Through this necessarily brief, historical view we shall recall how spectral classification, supported internationally by the IAU, continually updated its techniques, while remaining anchored to standards. This has ensured that the MK classification process stays very relevant to the initial characterizing of stars in the 21st century era of large spectral surveys.
Surveillance presents a conundrum: how to ensure safety, stability, and efficiency while respecting privacy and individual liberty. From police officers to corporations to intelligence agencies, surveillance law is tasked with striking this difficult and delicate balance. That challenge is compounded by ever-changing technologies and evolving social norms. Following the revelations of Edward Snowden and a host of private-sector controversies, there is intense interest among policymakers, business leaders, attorneys, academics, students, and the public regarding legal, technological, and policy issues relating to surveillance. This Handbook documents and organizes these conversations, bringing together some of the most thoughtful and impactful contributors to contemporary surveillance debates, policies, and practices. Its pages explore surveillance techniques and technologies; their value for law enforcement, national security, and private enterprise; their impacts on citizens and communities; and the many ways societies do - and should - regulate surveillance.