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The last chapter of this volume is somewhat unusual for an edited book in social science research on peace and transitional justice. But, it is one that we thought it was important to include. “Geographies of Truth,” by personnel from the Casa de la Memoria (House of Memory) of Medellin, is a discussion of how individuals from the museum developed key exhibits on the violence in Colombia. This process begins with a great many similarities to social science projects as literature is reviewed, original data are collected, and all the materials are analyzed for their relevance and role in, in this case, museum exhibits. At this stage, scholars would typically then conceive of our understanding and representation of events of the past in fairly conventional, analytical products that are designed to communicate to fellow academics. But those who curate museums like Casa de la Memoria must arrive at a work product in ways that will affect people not just intellectually but also emotionally and physically through the various senses. Such exhibits are also constructed for a much larger audience − the people of the nation − whose experiences are being represented. Thus, the process by which these exhibits are created is both fascinating as both an alternative means of conveying understandings about war and violence, and for the responsibilities the museum personnel have toward society as a whole in representing their truths. There is much we, as peace studies scholars, can gain from understanding their work.
We extend two known existence results to simply connected manifolds with positive sectional curvature: we show that there exist pairs of simply connected positively-curved manifolds that are tangentially homotopy equivalent but not homeomorphic, and we deduce that an open manifold may admit a pair of non-homeomorphic simply connected and positively-curved souls. Examples of such pairs are given by explicit pairs of Eschenburg spaces. To deduce the second statement from the first, we extend our earlier work on the stable converse soul question and show that it has a positive answer for a class of spaces that includes all Eschenburg spaces.
Short-term feeding studies have highlighted a phenomenon in Ca regulation that raises concerns around Ca absorption in dogs that may make an impact on commercial diets near to the maximum recommended level. A recent study to determine responses in dogs fed one of two diets differing in dietary Ca over 40 weeks found no evidence to suggest a concern across a range of biological parameters hypothesised to be affected by Ca. Unforeseen consequences of dietary Ca could have occurred and metabolic profiling was deemed a suitable data-driven approach to identify effects of dietary Ca. The objectives were to compare the fasted plasma metabolome (sampled at 8-week intervals over 40 weeks) of dogs fed one of two diets, near to the minimum and maximum recommended levels of dietary Ca. Comparisons with the control diet were also investigated across the postprandial time course (1–4 h) following acute (1 d) and long-term (24 weeks) feeding of the test diet. Comparing fasted plasma samples at each time point, no significant effect (adjusted P < 0·05) of diet on metabolites was observed. In the postprandial state, only phosphate was consistently different between diets and was explained by additional dietary P to maintain Ca:P. Metabolic profiling analysis supports the view that the dietary Ca upper limit is safe. Additionally, the canine plasma metabolome was characterised, providing insights into the stability of individual profiles across 40 weeks, the response to consumption of a nutritionally complete meal over a 4 h postprandial time course and different kinetic categories of postprandial absorption.
Differences in material conditions are a determinant that explains the little divergence between northwestern and southern Europe. This article approaches the evolution of prices in early modern Toledo (Spain). The price index includes new items such as housing and employs different baskets over time, reflecting changes in consumption patterns. During the city’s golden age, prices grew faster than in London, Paris, or Amsterdam. Wine, urban rent, and food prices experienced a great increase, coinciding with demographic growth and the arrival of the American precious metals. Prices slowed in the first half of the seventeenth century, throughout Castile’s demographic and economic decay.
The Richter Scale measures the magnitude of a seismic occurrence, but it does not feasibly quantify the magnitude of the “disaster” at the point of impact in real humanitarian needs, based on United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR; Geneva, Switzerland) 2009 Disaster Terminology. A Disaster Severity Index (DSI) similar to the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale has been formulated; this will quantify needs, holistically and objectively, in the hands of any stakeholders and even across timelines.
An agreed terminology in quantifying “disaster” matters; inconsistency in measuring it by stakeholders posed a challenge globally in formulating legislation and policies responding to it.
A quantitative, mathematical calculation which uses the median score percentage of 100% as a baseline, indicating the ability to cope within the local capacity, was used. Seventeen indicators were selected based on the UNISDR 2009 disaster definition of vulnerability and exposure and holistic approach as a pre-condition. The severity of the disaster is defined as the level of unmet needs. Thirty natural disasters were tested, retrospectively, and non-parametric tests were used to test the correlation of the DSI score against the indicators.
The findings showed that 20 out of 30 natural disasters tested fulfilled the inability to cope, within local capacity in disaster terminology. Non-parametric tests showed that there was a correlation between the 30 DSI scored and the indicators.
By computing a median fit percentage score of 100% as the ability to cope, and the correlation of the 17 indicators, in this DSI Scale, 20 natural disasters fitted into the disaster definition. This DSI will enable humanitarian stakeholders to measure and compare the severity of the disaster objectively, as well as enable future response to be based on needs.
YewYY, Castro DelgadoR, HeslopDJ, Arcos GonzálezP. The Yew Disaster Severity Index: A New Tool in Disaster Metrics. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(1):8–19.
To assess trends of mortality attributable to child and maternal undernutrition (CMU), overweight/obesity and dietary risks of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015.
For each risk factor, a systematic review of data was used to compute the exposure level and the effect size. A Bayesian hierarchical meta-regression analysis was used to estimate the exposure level of the risk factors by age, sex, geography and year. The burden of all-cause mortality attributable to CMU, fourteen dietary risk factors (eight diets, five nutrients and fibre intake) and overweight/obesity was estimated.
All age groups and both sexes.
In 2015, CMU, overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD accounted for 826204 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) 737346, 923789), 266768 (95 % UI 189051, 353096) and 558578 (95 % UI 453433, 680197) deaths, respectively, representing 10·3 % (95 % UI 9·1, 11·6 %), 3·3 % (95 % UI 2·4, 4·4 %) and 7·0 % (95 % UI 5·8, 8·3 %) of all-cause mortality. While the age-standardized proportion of all-cause mortality accounted for by CMU decreased by 55·2 % between 1990 and 2015 in SSA, it increased by 63·3 and 17·2 % for overweight/obesity and dietary risks of NCD, respectively.
The increasing burden of diet- and obesity-related diseases and the reduction of mortality attributable to CMU indicate that SSA is undergoing a rapid nutritional transition. To tackle the impact in SSA, interventions and international development agendas should also target dietary risks associated with NCD and overweight/obesity.
To summarize ways that networks of community-based organizations (CBO), in partnership with public health departments, contribute to community recovery from disaster.
The study was conducted using an online survey administered one and 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to the partnership networks of 369 CBO and the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The survey assessed the structure and durability of networks, how they were influenced by storm damage, and whether more connected networks were associated with better recovery outcomes.
During response and recovery, CBOs provide an array of critical public health services often outside their usual scope. New CBO partnerships were formed to support recovery, particularly in severely impacted areas. CBOs that were more connected to other CBOs and were part of a long-term recovery committee reported greater impacts on the community; however, a partnership with the local health department was not associated with recovery impacts.
CBO partners are flexible in their scope of services, and CBO partnerships often emerge in areas with the greatest storm damage, and subsequently the greatest community needs. National policies will advance if they account for the dynamic and emergent nature of these partnerships and their contributions, and clarify the role of government partners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:635–643)
We present a critical reanalysis of the black-hole binary coalescences detected during LIGO’s first observing run under different Bayesian prior assumptions. We summarize the main findings of Vitale et al. (2017) and show additional marginalized posterior distributions for some of the binaries’ intrinsic parameters.
These findings were presented at IAU Symposium 338, held on October 16-19, 2017 in Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Cognitive performance is not easily predicted, since different variables play an important role in the manifestation of age-related declines. The objective of this study is to analyze the predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample over 50 years from a multidimensional perspective, including socioeconomic, affective, and physical variables. Some of them are well-known predictors of cognition and others are emergent variables in the study of cognition.
The total sample, drawn from the “Longitudinal Study Aging in Spain (ELES)” project, consisted of 832 individuals without signs of cognitive impairment. Cognitive function was measured with tests evaluating episodic and working memory, visuomotor speed, fluency, and naming. Thirteen independent variables were selected as predictors belonging to socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution areas. Multiple linear regressions, following the enter method, were calculated for each age group in order to study the influence of these variables in cognitive performance.
Education is the variable which best predicts cognitive performance in the 50–59, 60–69, and 70–79 years old groups. In the 80+ group, the best predictor is objective economic status and education does not enter in the model.
Age-related decline can be modified by the influence of educational and socioeconomic variables. In this context, it is relevant to take into account how easy is to modify certain variables, compared to others which depend on each person's life course.
Middle Pleistocene sites that document glacials are relatively rare in the Iberian Peninsula, and as such, the composition of cold small-vertebrate assemblages is almost unknown in southwestern Mediterranean Europe. The archaeological site Estanque de Tormentas de Butarque H-02 in Villaverde, Madrid, in central Spain, recently attributed to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, provides new data on cold small-vertebrate assemblages. Quantitative climate reconstruction and habitat weighting methods applied to the herpetofaunal assemblage reconstruct the terrestrial climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed in central Spain during the penultimate glacial (MIS 6). During MIS 6, the climate was colder (−3.0°C) and slightly wetter (+122.8 mm) than present in the study area. This confirms that temperature variations were not extreme and precipitation was sufficient in southern Mediterranean Europe for the persistence of temperate trees. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a large representation of dry environments on the overlying plateau, together with a probable corridor of humid meadows and woodlands along the river where the site is located.
The relation between body weight status and depressive symptoms in the elderly differs according to age and country of origin. The goal of this study was to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and depressive symptoms in the elderly.
A population-based cohort study of 1,702 elderly individuals (70.6+8.0 years) in Southern Brazil evaluated in 2009/10 and 2013/14 was accessed. The body weight status was assessed using measured data of BMI and WC. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to determine depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral variables was performed.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms in 2009/10 was 23.3% (95% CI 20.3–26.6) and the cumulative incidence in the 4-years period was 10.9% (95% CI 8.7–13.6). Elderly people with obesity class II–III and WC in the highest quartile had higher prevalence odds ratio of being depressed than individuals with normal weight or WC in the lower quartile (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.42–3.87 and OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.13–2.65, respectively). Meanwhile, intermediary values of BMI and WC were associated with a lower prevalence. When evaluating the incidence of depressive symptoms, overweight individuals and those in the second quartile of WC had a lower risk (58% and 57%, respectively), but severely obese individuals had the same risk compared to those with normal BMI/WC.
Severely obese individuals presented a similar incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with normal BMI/WC, but higher prevalence. Intermediary values of body weight status decrease the risk of depressive symptoms.
Gurga Chiya and Tepe Marani are small, adjacent mounds located close to the town of Halabja in the southern part of the Shahrizor Plain, one of the most fertile regions of Iraqi Kurdistan. Survey and excavation at these previously unexplored sites is beginning to produce evidence for human settlement spanning the sixth to the fourth millennia, c. 5600–3300 cal. b.c. In Mesopotamian chronology this corresponds to the Late Neolithic through to Chalcolithic periods; the Halaf, Ubaid, and Uruk phases of conventional culture history. In Iraqi Kurdistan, documentation of these periods—which witnessed many important transformations in prehistoric village life—is currently very thin. Here we offer a preliminary report on the emerging results from the Shahrizor Plain, with a particular focus on the description of material culture (ceramic and lithic assemblages), in order to establish a benchmark for further research. We also provide a detailed report on botanical remains and accompanying radiocarbon dates, which allow us to place this new evidence in a wider comparative framework. A further, brief account is given of Late Bronze Age material culture from the upper layers at Gurga Chiya. We conclude with observations on the significance of the Shahrizor Plain for wider research into the later prehistory of the Middle East, and the importance of preserving and investigating its archaeological record.
This prospective, observational study characterizes the circumstances that led to falls in long-term care (LTC) residents and describes the characteristics of residents who fractured following a fall. Staff recorded the location of the fall, time of day, activity the participant was doing prior, and if an injury occurred. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the falls, and a generalized linear model was used to determine differences between the circumstances. Of the 101 LTC residents who participated, 41 per cent experienced at least one fall. Residents were significantly more likely to have fallen in the bedroom and while walking. Of the 17 falls resulting in fractures, most occurred in the bedroom and bathroom, during the early morning; most residents who fractured were female with cognitive impairment. To monitor falls comprehensively, ambulatory monitoring that avoids privacy issues in bedrooms or bathrooms may be needed. Interventions should target walking or the bedroom setting.
The collective response of electrons in an ultrathin foil target irradiated by an ultraintense (
) laser pulse is investigated experimentally and via 3D particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that if the target is sufficiently thin that the laser induces significant radiation pressure, but not thin enough to become relativistically transparent to the laser light, the resulting relativistic electron beam is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse directed along the laser polarization axis. When the target thickness is decreased such that it becomes relativistically transparent early in the interaction with the laser pulse, diffraction of the transmitted laser light occurs through a so called ‘relativistic plasma aperture’, inducing structure in the spatial-intensity profile of the beam of energetic electrons. It is shown that the electron beam profile can be modified by variation of the target thickness and degree of ellipticity in the laser polarization.
Radiocarbon dating of closely associated marine mollusk shells and terrestrial material (mammal bones or charred wood) collected from archaeological contexts in northern Atlantic Iberian coastal areas is used to quantify the marine 14C reservoir effect (ΔR) for the coastal waters off the Cantabrian coast of northern Iberia. For the first time, ΔR values were reliably determined for these coastal waters and, also for the first time, a ΔR was calculated for the Late Pleistocene in Atlantic Iberia. Pairs of coeval samples of different carbon reservoirs selected from Upper Paleolithic (Late Pleistocene) and Mesolithic (Early Holocene) contexts yielded ΔR weighted mean values of –117±70 14C yr and –105±21 14C yr, respectively. These values show oceanographic conditions characterized by a reduced offset between atmospheric and surface water 14C contents, suggesting a nonexistent or very weak upwelling and some stratification of the water column. Similar oceanographic conditions have been recorded in other areas of Atlantic Iberia during the Holocene, such as off Andalusian and northwestern Galician coasts. Results not only provide useful information on environmental conditions but also a framework to obtain more precise and reliable absolute chronologies for the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene in northern Iberia.
The deposition of PbS thin films by the chemical bath deposition method using sodium citrate as non-toxic complexing agent is presented. As-deposited PbS films and those annealed at 200 and 300 °C in argon atmosphere were formed by tightly compact spherical particles homogeneously distributed along the substrates. The XRD analysis shows that all the films had a galena type cubic crystalline structure. The crystallite size of the as-deposited film was 17 nm which decreased to 14 nm when the film was annealed to 300 °C. Thermal treatments to the films produced a shift of the optical band gap from 1.34 to 1.49 eV. Furthermore, the as-deposited PbS films were photosensitive showing a conductivity of 10-2 Ω-1 cm-1 under illumination. Such a conductivity increased to 10-1 Ω-1 cm-1 with the thermal treatment at 200 °C. The evaluation of the PbS film using a CdS thin film partner as window in the solar cell configuration showed an open circuit voltage of 88 mV and a short current density of 3.5 mA/cm2.