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This paper provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), focusing on key targets, progress towards meeting those targets, and materials-related issues that need to be addressed. The most recent, state-of-the-art data on metrics such as cost, durability, and performance of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies are presented. Key technical accomplishments to date include a 50% reduction in the modeled high volume cost of fuel cells since 2006, and an 80% cost reduction for electrolyzers since 2002. The statuses of various hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies are also presented along with a summary of materials-related challenges for hydrogen infrastructure technologies such as compression, dispensing, seals, pipeline materials/embrittlement, and storage materials. Specific examples and areas requiring more research are discussed. Finally, future plans including EERE’s lab consortium approach such as HyMARC (Hydrogen Storage Materials Advanced Research Consortium) and FC-PAD (Fuel Cell Performance and Durability) Consortia, are summarized.
The emergence of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in transportation and stationary power sectors offers the world important and potentially transformative environmental and energy security benefits. In recent years, research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has contributed substantially to the development of these technologies. Enhanced performance and reduced cost in automotive fuel cells are important examples of achievement. The research investments are clearly paying off, as commercial fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are being rolled out by major car manufacturers today. With increasing market penetration of FCEVs, enabling technologies for the affordable and widespread production, storage and delivery of renewable hydrogen are becoming increasingly important. Long term commercial viability of hydrogen and fuel cells in the commercial marketplace will rely on continued materials research on several important fronts. Examples include the discovery and development of: (1) non-platinum-group-metal catalysts for next-generation fuel cells; (2) durable, high-performance photocatalytic materials systems for direct solar water splitting; (3) advanced materials-based systems for low-pressure, high-volumetric-density hydrogen storage; and (4) low-cost, hydrogen-compatible pipeline materials for hydrogen delivery and distribution. Research innovations in macro-, meso- and nano-scale materials are all needed for pushing forward the state-of-the-art in these areas. New approaches in accelerated materials development facilitated by a national Energy Materials Network of advanced scientific resources in theory, computation and experimentation are being adopted at DOE. Application of these approaches to address the key materials challenges in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are discussed.
Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show minor decrements in their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Sensitive measures of IADL performance are needed to capture the mild difficulties observed in aMCI groups. Routine naturalistic actions (NAs) are familiar IADL-type activities that require individuals to enact everyday tasks such as preparing coffee. In the current study we examined the extent to which NAs could be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of aMCI relative to composite measures of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Healthy older adults (n=24) and individuals with aMCI (n=24) enacted two highly familiar NAs and completed tests of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Binary logistic regression was used to predict group membership (aMCI vs. control participants). The regression analyses indicated that NA performance could reliably predict group membership, over and above measures of cognitive functioning. These findings indicated that NA performance can be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of healthy aging and aMCI and used as an outcome measure in intervention studies. (JINS, 2015, 21, 419–428)
There is growing evidence that many offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) will develop moderate to severe forms of psychopathology during childhood and adolescence, including thought problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developmental progression of thought problems within the context of a family risk study. Repeated assessments of thought problems, spanning approximately 15 years, were conducted in offspring (N = 192 from 98 families) of parents diagnosed with BD (O-BD), unipolar depression (O-UNI), or no significant psychiatric or medical problems (O-WELL). Survival analysis showed that the O-BD group had the greatest estimated probability of developing thought problems over time, followed by O-UNI, and then O-WELL and O-BD exhibiting higher levels of persistence than O-WELL. Parent-reported thought problems in childhood and adolescence predicted a range of problems in young adulthood. Disturbances in reality testing and other atypical behaviors are likely to disrupt progression through important developmental periods and to associate with poor outcomes. These findings are likely relevant to preventing the occurrence or progression of problems in offspring of bipolar parents. The study of thought problems across development represents an important area of continued research in children at risk for development of affective disorders.
More than half a century ago, Walton H. Hamilton recognized the dual economic and moral spirit of the nineteenth century's ‘sense of individualism’ when he wrote that the legal maxim caveat emptor ‘served well its two masters, business and justice’. However, recent scholarship has captured only half that spirit. Historians have concentrated on business and attributed the way judges shaped the law of the marketplace to their desire to promote economic growth. James Willard Hurst, in his seminal Law and the Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth Century United States, posits ‘the release of individual creative energy’ as the ‘dominant value’ in American law for the first half or three-quarters of the nineteenth century, pointing to such developments as the judicial embellishment of ‘procedures and instruments to promote dealing at a distance and on credit’ in response ‘to the needs of a growing commerce’. Lawrence M. Friedman states that nineteenth century contract law was ‘attuned to the needs of a growing economy, at least as the leading judges read those needs’. Harold M. Hyman and William M. Wiecek credit the content of pre-Civil War contract law to the ‘developmental, entrepreneurial bias’ of antebellum judges. According to Bernard Schwartz, the job of American law, at least through the Civil War, was ‘to furnish the legal tools necessary for effective mobilization of the community's resources’. William E. Nelson, adding a class twist to the ‘developmental’ theme, writes that the law in the nineteenth century ‘came to be a tool by which those interest groups that had emerged victorious in the competition for control of law-making institutions could seize most of society's wealth for themselves and enforce their seizure upon the losers’.
Dendrons and dendrimers containing cyclophosphazenes units in each generation have been synthesised by the convergent route for the first time. We also demonstrate the synthesis of dendrons containing precise numbers of benzyl protected alcohol functionalities.
This study examined whether off-target verbosity should be conceptualized as a distinct process from high levels of talkativeness in every day social situations. The relationship of age to these speech styles was also determined. The responses of 125 community-based elderly adults to a life-history interview were independently rated by two research assistants for the frequency and extent of off-target verbosity. The participant's activities in daily life, including talkativeness, were independently rated by the participants themselves, 125 similar-aged peers and 10 professional workers acquainted with the participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a model postulating off-target verbosity and talkativeness as two largely independent latent factors. Age was associated with the verbosity factor. The results were interpreted as indicating that off-target verbosity cannot be explained by the same processes that underlie social talkativeness. Possible mechanisms of the verbosity factor were discussed.
Scholars have long debated the complicity of Southern white women after the Civil War in helping create a racialist and racist regional identity and denying or delaying civil rights for African Americans. These studies have largely focused on the activities of elite white women property owners, club members, and writers. Yet few scholars have examined college women's activities in this regard, particularly those of the eight public colleges for women established in the South between 1884 and 1908: Mississippi State College for Women (MSCW) (1884), Georgia State College for Women (1889), Winthrop College in South Carolina (1891), North Carolina College for Women (NCCW) (1891), Alabama College for Women (ACW) (1893), Texas State College for Women (TSCW) (1901), Florida State College for Women (FSCW) (1905), and Oklahoma College for Women (1908). Little studied today, these schools served as important centers of women's education in their states, collectively educating approximately 100,000 women before World War II and with combined enrollments exceeding that of the Seven Sisters schools for many years.
We describe two siblings of consanguineous parents with a prenatal diagnosis of a currently unique form of congenital cardiac disease characterized by superior-inferior atrial and ventricular arrangement, concordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections with normal arterial relationships, and a bizarre topography of the ventricular outlets, with the arterial poles being displaced posterior-inferiorly within the thorax. The abnormally low position of the aortic arch resulted in elongation and stretching of the airways, with severe compression of the trachea and left main bronchus in the surviving sibling. The finding of the same rare abnormality in a son and a daughter born to consanguineous parents supports a single gene disorder with a recessive mode of inheritance.
Findings of category-specific impairments have suggested that
human semantic memory may be organized around a
living/nonliving dichotomy. In order to assess implicit
memory performance for living and nonliving concepts, one group
of neurologically intact individuals participated in a cross-form
conceptual priming paradigm. In Block 1, pictures primed words
while in Block 2 words were used to prime pictures. Across all
phases of the experiment, subjects decided whether items
represented something which was living or nonliving, and response
times were recorded. Results revealed greater priming for living
concepts across both blocks. Greater priming for living concepts
may have occurred because of increased or prolonged conceptual
activation of these concepts. Results are discussed in the context
of theoretical accounts of the category-specific impairments
observed in brain-damaged populations. (JINS, 2003,
Guanxi, translated as 'social connections,' or 'social networks,' is among the most important studied phenomena in China today. Guanxi lies at the heart of China's social order, its economic structure, and its changing institutional landscape. It is considered important in every realm of life, from politics to business, and officialdom to street life. This volume offers scholarly thinking on the subject by top China sociologists whose work on guanxi has been influential and by scholars offering insights on the topic. The authors examine the role of guanxi in: business decisions among managers and entrepreneurs; the decisions and practices of workers; the construction of new legal institutions; the new social order. Scholars and students of China will find this a rich source of detailed information on the workings of Chinese social relationships and a valuable, new interpretation of the meaning and place of guanxi today.
Guanxi (pronounced “gwan-shee”), loosely translated as “connections,” is the latest Chinese word to gain entry into English parlance. While the term was virtually unknown to non-Chinese speakers a decade ago, today it is used by Chinese and non-Chinese speakers alike, and it has made its way into many popular venues. Indeed, Internet search engines such as Yahoo and Altavista yield some 2,000 references under the heading “guanxi.” Conventional wisdom among Chinese and foreigners holds that in the People's Republic of China (PRC), guanxi is absolutely essential to successfully complete any task in virtually all spheres of social life. Guanxi purportedly performs a critical lubricating function in Mainland China, and also in the peripheral Chinese societies of Hong Kong and Taiwan, among minority Chinese communities in Southeast Asia and elsewhere, and as a means of linking together the global Chinese diaspora.
Guanxi has both positive and negative connotations, with the latter dominating most of the discussions. Critics see it as fueling the country's rampant corruption, and as an obstacle to China's becoming a modern society based on the rule of law. Those who see it in a more favorable light contend that guanxi adds an element of humanity to otherwise cold transactions, and comes to the rescue in the absence of consistent regulations or guidelines for social conduct.
In the fall of 1998, the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of California, Berkeley, under the direction of Thomas Gold, brought several scholars from around the world to talk about guanxi, a phenomenon we had all written about in one way or another. We wanted not only to explore several substantive issues – the importance of guanxi in Chinese societies, the conditions under which it is alive and thriving in China today, the extent to which it is linked to Chinese culture, its fate in China's economic reforms – but also to examine the ways this important Chinese phenomenon had been treated in academic scholarship and popular discourse over the years. As these discussions got under way, we were struck by something else: While actual research that discussed the phenomenon of guanxi in China was relatively young – scholars have really only been discussing the topic directly since the mid-1970s – there has been an absolute explosion of scholarship on the topic in recent years.
Though not the first to write about the phenomenon, Thomas Gold published one of the early essays in 1985 that addressed the issue directly from the perspective of its changing role in China's economic reforms. And while the early works of Andrew Walder (1986) and Jean Oi (1989) do not spend much time discussing guanxi per se, the issue of social relations in China is clearly central in their examinations of Chinese political economy.