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Psychotic symptoms and psychotic disorders occur at increased rates in adults with intellectual disability, including borderline intellectual functioning, compared with the general population. Little is known about the development of such symptoms in this population.
To examine whether clinical factors predictive of psychotic disorder in a familial study of schizophrenia also apply to those with intellectual disability.
Adolescents with special educational needs (SEN) were assessed with the Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS) and Childhood Behavioural Checklist (CBCL). These scores were used to prospectively divide participants based on their anticipated risk for psychotic disorder. A subsample were reassessed three times over 6 years, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
The SEN group were more symptomatic than controls throughout (Cohen's d range for PANSS subscale scores: 0.54–1.4, all P < 0.007). Over 6 years of follow-up, those above the SIS and CBCL cut-off values at baseline were more likely than those below to display morbid positive psychotic symptoms (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI 1.3–9.0) and develop psychotic disorder (odds ratio, 11.4; 95% CI 2.6–50.1). Baseline SIS and CBCL cut-off values predicted psychotic disorder with sensitivity of 0.67, specificity of 0.85, positive predictive value of 0.26 and negative predictive value of 0.97.
Adolescents with SEN have increased psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms. The personality and behavioural features associated with later psychotic disorder in this group are similar to those in people with familial loading. Relatively simple screening measures may help identify those in this vulnerable group who do and do not require monitoring for psychotic symptoms.
It is reported that people with mild learning disability have a higher point prevalence of schizophrenia than the normal population, the reasons for which are unclear.
Thirty-nine subjects with mild learning disability and schizophrenia, 34 control subjects with schizophrenia and 28 control subjects with mild learning disability were seen. Interviews with relatives and carers were also conducted. Assessments were made of clinical variables, psychopathology, neurological ‘soft'signs, IQ, memory and family history. Blood was taken for karyotypic analysis from comorbid subjects.
The comorbid group had more negative symptoms, episodic memory deficits, soft neurological signs, epilepsy and receive more community supports than control subjects with schizophrenia. Comorbid subjects had a tendency to belong to multiply affected families and show high rates of chromosomal variants on routine karyotypic testing.
Future work on the generality of schizophrenia should include people with premorbid learning disability, as a discrete subtype from whom valuable genetic aetiological clues may be obtained.
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