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We formulate a theory of pointed manifolds, accommodating both embeddings and Pontryagin–Thom collapse maps, so as to present a common generalization of Poincaré duality in topology and Koszul duality in
Supervisor character and behavior are key components of an organization's ethical fabric that should play a role in employee helping behavior. However, research has not fully distinguished how these factors are interrelated. The current study explores these relationships by developing a deeper understanding of ethical language in organizations via thick ethical concepts found in simulation software, supported by affect control theory. Software formulae in these simulations were developed via empirical research conducted over several decades. Simulations provided predictions of employee helpfulness in response to encounters with supervisors of varying ethical characters, enacting a variety of behaviors. The likely impact of supervisor character on employee helpfulness is more substantial than the impact of supervisor behavior. New insights emerged related to underlying complexities of ethical languages, such as the role of cultural meanings of language terms. These outcomes, as well as the associated implications, research limitations, and suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up.
Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted.
81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3–60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1–138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS.
One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.
Clinical diagnostics in sudden-onset disasters (SOD) has historically been limited. With poor supply routes, lack of a cold chain, and challenging environmental conditions, many diagnostic platforms are unsuitable.
We set out to design, implement, and evaluate a mobile diagnostic laboratory accompanying a type II emergency medical team (EMT) field hospital.
Available diagnostic platforms were reviewed and selected against infield need. Platforms included HemoCue301/WBC DIFF, i-STAT, BioFire multiplex RT-PCR, Olympus BX53 microscopy, ABO/Rh Grouping, and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). This equipment was trialed in Katherine, Australia and Dili, Timor-Leste.
During the initial deployment, validation of FilmArray rt-PCR multiplex tests was successful on blood culture, gastrointestinal, and respiratory panels. HemoCue301 (n = 20) haemoglobin values were compared on Sysmex XN 550 (r = 0.94). Analysis of HemoCue WBC DIFF samples had some variation when compared to Sysmex XN 550, (neutrophils r = 0.88, lymphocytes r = 0.49, monocytes r = 0.16, eosinophils r = 0.70, basophils r = 0.16). i-STAT showed non-significant differences for CHEM4 (n=10), CG8 (n = 10), and TnI (n = 5) against Vitros 250. A further trial of BioFire rt-PCR testing in Dili, Timor-Leste diagnosed 117 causative pathogens on 168 FilmArray test cartridges.
This mobile laboratory represents a major advance in SOD. Setup of the service was quick (<24hr) and transport to site rapidly. Training was simple and performance consistent. Future deployment in fragmented health systems after sudden onset disasters with EMT2 will now allow broader diagnostics.
A more efficient utilisation of marine-derived sources of dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA) in cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) could be achieved by nutritional strategies that maximise endogenous n-3 LC PUFA synthesis. The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of n-3 LC PUFA biosynthesis and the resultant effect on fillet nutritional quality in large fish. Four diets were manufactured, providing altered levels of dietary n-3 substrate, namely, 18 : 3n-3, and end products, namely, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. After 283 d of feeding, fish grew in excess of 3000 g and no differences in growth performance or biometrical parameters were recorded. An analysis of fatty acid composition and in vivo metabolism revealed that endogenous production of n-3 LC PUFA in fish fed a diet containing no added fish oil resulted in fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA comparable with fish fed a diet with added fish oil. However, this result was not consistent among all treatments. Another major finding of this study was the presence of abundant dietary n-3 substrate, with the addition of dietary n-3 end product (i.e. fish oil) served to increase final fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA. Specifically, preferential β-oxidation of dietary C18n-3 PUFA resulted in conservation of n-3 LC PUFA from catabolism. Ultimately, this study highlights the potential for endogenous synthesis of n-3 LC PUFA to, partially, support a substantial reduction in the amount of dietary fish oil in diets for Atlantic salmon reared in seawater.
Objectives: Long-term neurological response to treatment after a severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a dynamic process. Failure to capture individual heterogeneity in recovery may impact findings from single endpoint sTBI randomized controlled trials (RCT). The present study re-examined the efficacy of erythropoietin (Epo) and transfusion thresholds through longitudinal modeling of sTBI recovery as measured by the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). This study complements the report of primary outcomes in the Epo sTBI RCT, which failed to detect significant effects of acute treatment at 6 months post-injury. Methods: We implemented mixed effects models to characterize the recovery time-course and to examine treatment efficacy as a function of time post-injury and injury severity. Results: The inter-quartile range (25th–75th percentile) of DRS scores was 20–28 at week1; 8–24 at week 4; and 3–17 at 6 months. TBI severity group was found to significantly interact with Epo randomization group on mean DRS recovery curves. No significant differences in DRS recovery were found in transfusion threshold groups. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the value of taking a comprehensive view of recovery from sTBI in the Epo RCT as a temporally dynamic process that is shaped by both treatment and injury severity, and highlights the importance of the timing of primary outcome measurement. Effects of Epo treatment varied as a function of injury severity and time. Future studies are warranted to understand the possible moderating influence of injury severity on treatment effects pertaining to sTBI recovery. (JINS, 2019, 25, 293–301)
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
Recent observations from the tropics indicate seasonal peaks in breeding and vocal activity of some bird species. However, information about seasonality in vocal activity at the community level is still lacking in the tropics. We examined seasonal variation in the diurnal vocal activity of lowland rain forest birds on Mount Cameroon, using weekly automatic sound recording throughout the whole year and related it to rainfall and temperature. We show that the bird community in lowland rain forest vocalized year-round, but species richness as well as the vocal activity of the community varied greatly during the year. This variation coincided with the seasonality of rainfall. The highest number of species (31.5 on average) sang at the beginning of the driest period, followed by a gradual decrease in singing with increasing rainfall (minimum 14.5 species). This indicates that intensive rainfall indirectly limits the vocal activity of the tropical rain-forest bird community. Temporal turnover of vocalizing species as well as within-day variation in vocal activity was highest during the transition period between dry and rainy seasons. We suggest that this could reflect differing timing in the breeding activity of particular feeding guilds to follow seasonal peaks of their diets.
This volume explores the diverse ways in which the Book of Psalms profoundly influenced medieval English literature and culture, through a series of connected overviews and special case studies. A number of recent studies have highlighted the Psalter's reception in Early Modern English (and wider European culture), while three monographs by contributors to this volume offer focused studies of the Psalter in individual periods of medieval English literature: Jane Toswell's The Anglo-Saxon Psalter, Annie Sutherland's English Psalms in the Middle Ages: 1300–1450and Michael P. Kuczynski's Prophetic Song: The Psalms as Moral Discourse in Late Medieval England. But as yet no single study has sought to offer a comprehensive survey of English responses to the Book of Psalms from the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to the cusp of the Reformation. By bringing work by experts on both Old and Middle English literature into dialogue, this volume breaks down the traditional disciplinary binaries of pre- and post-Conquest English, late medieval and Early Modern, as well as emphasizing the complex and fascinating relationship between Latin and the vernacular languages of England. In order to encourage the reader to make connections both across and within these various periods and languages, the book is arranged thematically rather than chronologically, with three sections designed to offer a variety of perspectives on the Psalms and medieval English literature.
Section I (Translation) focuses on the development of English psalm translation from its beginnings in Old English interlinear glosses in Latin psalters through the multilingual psalters of the Anglo-Norman era to the stand-alone vernacular psalters of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Concentrating on the Psalter as a book, this section charts the emergence of English as a scriptural language in the medieval period.
Section II (Adaptation) considers how medieval English prose and verse writers draw on the Psalms as a source of literary inspiration. Demonstrating how the Psalter could be adapted and redeployed within the context of medieval worship and prayer, it begins with a discussion of the first adaptation of the entire Psalter into English verse, before turning to a consideration of the development of the abbreviated psalter tradition. This section also addresses the wider influence of psalmic language and imagery on Old English praise and lament poetry, and on Middle English alliterative verse.
The Book of Psalms had a profound impact on English literature from the Anglo-Saxon to the late medieval period. This collection examines the various ways in which they shaped medieval English thoughtand contributed to the emergence of an English literary canon. It brings into dialogue experts on both Old and Middle English literature, thus breaking down the traditional disciplinary binaries of both pre- and post-Conquest English and late medieval and Early Modern, as well as emphasizing the complex and fascinating relationship between Latin and the vernacular languages of England. Its three main themes, translation, adaptation and voice, enable a rich variety of perspectives on the Psalms and medieval English literature to emerge.
Tamara Atkin is Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Literature at Queen Mary University of London; Francis Leneghan is Associate Professor of Old English at The University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Cross College, Oxford.
Contributors: Daniel Anlezark, Mark Faulkner, Vincent Gillespie, Michael P. Kuczynski, David Lawton, Francis Leneghan, Jane Roberts, Mike Rodman Jones, Elizabeth Solopova, Lynn Staley, AnnieSutherland, Jane Toswell, Katherine Zieman.