To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) is rapidly spreading in the U.S., gaining attention in the last two decades as a serious invasive pest. Recommended control methods include foliar, basal bark, cut-stump and hack-and-squirt application of herbicides, but there are few published studies with replicated data on efficacy. Four readily available herbicidal active ingredients and a combination of two active ingredients were tested for control efficacy against Callery pear in old field areas and loblolly pine understory. Basal bark applications (triclopyr, triclopyr + aminopyralid), foliar applications (glyphosate, imazapyr), and a soil application (hexazinone) effectively killed Callery pear with the exception of hexazinone at one site, where rainfall may not have been optimal. Foliar application of glyphosate provided the most consistent control. Our results demonstrate efficacy of registered herbicide formulations for Callery pear control in two geographic locations and two habitat types. The need for development of integrated pest management programs for Callery pear is discussed.
Animal-derived dietary protein ingestion and physical activity stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older adults. We determined whether a non-animal-derived diet can support daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates to the same extent as an omnivorous diet. Nineteen healthy older adults (age 66±1 y; BMI 24±1 kg·m-2; m=12, f=7) participated in a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial during which they consumed a 3-day isocaloric high-protein (1.8 g·kg body mass-1·d-1) diet, where the protein was provided from predominantly (71%) animal (OMNI; n=9; m=6, f=3) or exclusively vegan (VEG; n=10; m=6, f=4; mycoprotein providing 57% of daily protein intake) sources. During the dietary control period participants conducted a daily bout of unilateral resistance-type leg extension exercise. Prior to the dietary control period participants ingested 400 mL deuterated water, with 50 mL doses consumed daily thereafter. Saliva samples were collected throughout to determine body water deuterium (2H) enrichments, and muscle samples were collected from rested and exercised muscle to determine daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Deuterated water dosing resulted in body water 2H enrichments of ~0.78±0.03%. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 13±8 (P=0.169) and 12±4% (P=0.016) greater in the exercised compared with rested leg (1.59±0.12 vs 1.77±0.12 %·d-1 and 1.76±0.14 vs 1.93±0.12 %·d-1) in OMNI and VEG groups, respectively. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between OMNI and VEG in either rested or exercised muscle (P>0.05). Over the course of a three day intervention, omnivorous or vegan derived dietary protein sources can support equivalent rested and exercised daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older adults consuming a high-protein diet.
Choline plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism for fish, and its deficiency in aquafeed has been linked to compromised health and growth performance. A 56-d experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary choline on lipid composition, histology and plasma biochemistry of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; YTK; 156 g initial body weight). The dietary choline content ranged from 0·59 to 6·22 g/kg diet. 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) (3 g/kg) was added to diets, except for a control diet, to limit de novo choline synthesis. The results showed that the liver lipid content of YTK was similar among diets containing AMP and dominated by NEFA. In contrast, fish fed the control diet had significantly elevated liver TAG. Generally, the SFA, MUFA and PUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed diets containing AMP was not influenced by choline content. The SFA and MUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed the control diet was similar to other diets except for a decrease in PUFA. The linear relationship between lipid digestibility and plasma cholesterol was significant, otherwise most parameters were unaffected. When AMP is present, higher dietary choline reduced the severity of some hepatic lesions. The present study demonstrated that choline deficiency affects some plasma and liver histology parameters in juvenile YTK which might be useful fish health indicators. Importantly, the present study elucidated potential reasons for lower growth in choline-deficient YTK and increased the knowledge on choline metabolism in the fish.
Patent ductus arteriosus closure is traditionally performed by thoracotomy approach. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a less frequently utilised alternative. We sought to compare elective surgical outcomes between the two methods via a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis.
All patients >3.2 kg undergoing surgical patent ductus arteriosus ligation at a single institution from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity matching for age, weight, diuretic usage, and preterm status was conducted to adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Outcome measures included operative time, hospitalisation duration, post-operative complications, and re-operation.
A total of 173 patients were included, 127 thoracoscopy and 46 thoracotomy. In the unmatched cohorts, no significant difference in closure success was found (94% thoracoscopy versus 100% thoracotomy, p = 0.192). Although median operative time was longer for thoracoscopy (87 versus 56 minutes, p < 0.001), hospitalisation duration was shorter (1.05 versus 2.41 days, p < 0.001), as was ICU stay (0.00 versus 0.75 days, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in re-operation or complication rates, except chest tube placement (11% thoracoscopy versus 50% thoracotomy, p < 0.001). After matching (69 thoracoscopy versus 20 thoracotomy), these differences persisted, including median operative time (81 versus 56 minutes, p = 0.007; thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy), hospitalisation duration (1.25 versus 2.27 days, p < 0.001), and chest tube placement (17% versus 60%, p < 0.001). There remained no significant difference in complications or re-operations.
Thoracoscopic ligation was associated with shorter ICU and hospital stays and less frequent chest tube placement, but longer operative times. Other risks, including bleeding, chylothorax, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, were similar.
Clinical diagnostics in sudden onset disasters have historically been limited. We set out to design, implement, and evaluate a mobile diagnostic laboratory accompanying a type 2 emergency medical team (EMT) field hospital.
Available diagnostic platforms were reviewed and selected against in field need. Platforms included HemoCue301/WBC DIFF, i-STAT, BIOFIRE FILMARRAY multiplex rt-PCR, Olympus BX53 microscopy, ABO/Rh grouping, and specific rapid diagnostic tests. This equipment was trialed in Katherine, Australia, and Dili, Timor-Leste.
During the initial deployment, an evaluation of FilmArray tests was successful using blood culture identification, gastrointestinal, and respiratory panels. HemoCue301 (n = 20) hemoglobin values were compared on Sysmex XN 550 (r = 0.94). HemoCue WBC DIFF had some variation, dependent on the cell, when compared with Sysmex XN 550 (r = 0.88-0.16). i-STAT showed nonsignificant differences against Vitros 250. Further evaluation of FilmArray in Dili, Timor-Leste, diagnosed 117 pathogens on 168 FilmArray pouches, including 25 separate organisms on blood culture and 4 separate cerebrospinal fluid pathogens.
This mobile laboratory represents a major advance in sudden onset disaster. Setup of the service was quick (< 24 hr) and transport to site rapid. Future deployment in fragmented health systems after sudden onset disasters with EMT2 will now allow broader diagnostic capability.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor of childhood with >95% survival rates in the US. Traditional therapy for retinoblastoma often included enucleation (removal of the eye). While much is known about the visual, physical, and cognitive ramifications of enucleation, data are lacking about survivors' perception of how this treatment impacts overall quality of life.
Qualitative analysis of an open-ended response describing how much the removal of an eye had affected retinoblastoma survivors' lives and in what ways in free text, narrative form.
Four hundred and four retinoblastoma survivors who had undergone enucleation (bilateral disease = 214; 52% female; mean age = 44, SD = 11) completed the survey. Survivors reported physical problems (n = 205, 50.7%), intrapersonal problems (n = 77, 19.1%), social and relational problems (n = 98, 24.3%), and affective problems (n = 34, 8.4%) at a mean of 42 years after diagnosis. Three key themes emerged from survivors' responses; specifically, they (1) continue to report physical and intrapersonal struggles with appearance and related self-consciousness due to appearance; (2) have multiple social and relational problems, with teasing and bullying being prominent problems; and (3) reported utilization of active coping strategies, including developing more acceptance and learning compensatory skills around activities of daily living.
Significance of results
This study suggests that adult retinoblastoma survivors treated with enucleation continue to struggle with a unique set of psychosocial problems. Future interventions can be designed to teach survivors more active coping skills (e.g., for appearance-related issues, vision-related issues, and teasing/bullying) to optimize survivors' long-term quality of life.
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food production sectors in many low-income and food-deficit countries with aquatic ecozones. Yet its specific impact on nutrition and livelihood in local communities, where commercial and/or export-orientated aquaculture activities are developed, is largely unknown.
The present narrative and argumentative review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the connections between aquaculture agroecosystems, local and national fish production, fish consumption patterns and nutrition and health outcomes.
The agroecological dynamic in a coastal-estuarine zone, where the aquatic environment ranges from fully saline to freshwater, is complex, with seasonal and annual fluctuations in freshwater supply creating a variable salinity gradient which impacts on aquatic food production and on food production more generally. The local communities living in these dynamic aquatic ecozones are vulnerable to poverty, poor diet and health, while these ecosystems produce highly valuable and nutritious aquatic foods. Policies addressing the specific challenges of risk management of these communities are limited by the sectoral separation of aquatic food production – the fisheries and aquaculture sector, the broader food sector – and public health institutions.
Here we provide an argument for the integration of these factors to improve aquaculture value chains to better address the nutritional challenges in Bangladesh.
We formulate a theory of pointed manifolds, accommodating both embeddings and Pontryagin–Thom collapse maps, so as to present a common generalization of Poincaré duality in topology and Koszul duality in
Supervisor character and behavior are key components of an organization's ethical fabric that should play a role in employee helping behavior. However, research has not fully distinguished how these factors are interrelated. The current study explores these relationships by developing a deeper understanding of ethical language in organizations via thick ethical concepts found in simulation software, supported by affect control theory. Software formulae in these simulations were developed via empirical research conducted over several decades. Simulations provided predictions of employee helpfulness in response to encounters with supervisors of varying ethical characters, enacting a variety of behaviors. The likely impact of supervisor character on employee helpfulness is more substantial than the impact of supervisor behavior. New insights emerged related to underlying complexities of ethical languages, such as the role of cultural meanings of language terms. These outcomes, as well as the associated implications, research limitations, and suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up.
Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted.
81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3–60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1–138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS.
One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.
Clinical diagnostics in sudden-onset disasters (SOD) has historically been limited. With poor supply routes, lack of a cold chain, and challenging environmental conditions, many diagnostic platforms are unsuitable.
We set out to design, implement, and evaluate a mobile diagnostic laboratory accompanying a type II emergency medical team (EMT) field hospital.
Available diagnostic platforms were reviewed and selected against infield need. Platforms included HemoCue301/WBC DIFF, i-STAT, BioFire multiplex RT-PCR, Olympus BX53 microscopy, ABO/Rh Grouping, and specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). This equipment was trialed in Katherine, Australia and Dili, Timor-Leste.
During the initial deployment, validation of FilmArray rt-PCR multiplex tests was successful on blood culture, gastrointestinal, and respiratory panels. HemoCue301 (n = 20) haemoglobin values were compared on Sysmex XN 550 (r = 0.94). Analysis of HemoCue WBC DIFF samples had some variation when compared to Sysmex XN 550, (neutrophils r = 0.88, lymphocytes r = 0.49, monocytes r = 0.16, eosinophils r = 0.70, basophils r = 0.16). i-STAT showed non-significant differences for CHEM4 (n=10), CG8 (n = 10), and TnI (n = 5) against Vitros 250. A further trial of BioFire rt-PCR testing in Dili, Timor-Leste diagnosed 117 causative pathogens on 168 FilmArray test cartridges.
This mobile laboratory represents a major advance in SOD. Setup of the service was quick (<24hr) and transport to site rapidly. Training was simple and performance consistent. Future deployment in fragmented health systems after sudden onset disasters with EMT2 will now allow broader diagnostics.
A more efficient utilisation of marine-derived sources of dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA) in cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) could be achieved by nutritional strategies that maximise endogenous n-3 LC PUFA synthesis. The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of n-3 LC PUFA biosynthesis and the resultant effect on fillet nutritional quality in large fish. Four diets were manufactured, providing altered levels of dietary n-3 substrate, namely, 18 : 3n-3, and end products, namely, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3. After 283 d of feeding, fish grew in excess of 3000 g and no differences in growth performance or biometrical parameters were recorded. An analysis of fatty acid composition and in vivo metabolism revealed that endogenous production of n-3 LC PUFA in fish fed a diet containing no added fish oil resulted in fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA comparable with fish fed a diet with added fish oil. However, this result was not consistent among all treatments. Another major finding of this study was the presence of abundant dietary n-3 substrate, with the addition of dietary n-3 end product (i.e. fish oil) served to increase final fillet levels of n-3 LC PUFA. Specifically, preferential β-oxidation of dietary C18n-3 PUFA resulted in conservation of n-3 LC PUFA from catabolism. Ultimately, this study highlights the potential for endogenous synthesis of n-3 LC PUFA to, partially, support a substantial reduction in the amount of dietary fish oil in diets for Atlantic salmon reared in seawater.
Objectives: Long-term neurological response to treatment after a severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a dynamic process. Failure to capture individual heterogeneity in recovery may impact findings from single endpoint sTBI randomized controlled trials (RCT). The present study re-examined the efficacy of erythropoietin (Epo) and transfusion thresholds through longitudinal modeling of sTBI recovery as measured by the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). This study complements the report of primary outcomes in the Epo sTBI RCT, which failed to detect significant effects of acute treatment at 6 months post-injury. Methods: We implemented mixed effects models to characterize the recovery time-course and to examine treatment efficacy as a function of time post-injury and injury severity. Results: The inter-quartile range (25th–75th percentile) of DRS scores was 20–28 at week1; 8–24 at week 4; and 3–17 at 6 months. TBI severity group was found to significantly interact with Epo randomization group on mean DRS recovery curves. No significant differences in DRS recovery were found in transfusion threshold groups. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the value of taking a comprehensive view of recovery from sTBI in the Epo RCT as a temporally dynamic process that is shaped by both treatment and injury severity, and highlights the importance of the timing of primary outcome measurement. Effects of Epo treatment varied as a function of injury severity and time. Future studies are warranted to understand the possible moderating influence of injury severity on treatment effects pertaining to sTBI recovery. (JINS, 2019, 25, 293–301)
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
Recent observations from the tropics indicate seasonal peaks in breeding and vocal activity of some bird species. However, information about seasonality in vocal activity at the community level is still lacking in the tropics. We examined seasonal variation in the diurnal vocal activity of lowland rain forest birds on Mount Cameroon, using weekly automatic sound recording throughout the whole year and related it to rainfall and temperature. We show that the bird community in lowland rain forest vocalized year-round, but species richness as well as the vocal activity of the community varied greatly during the year. This variation coincided with the seasonality of rainfall. The highest number of species (31.5 on average) sang at the beginning of the driest period, followed by a gradual decrease in singing with increasing rainfall (minimum 14.5 species). This indicates that intensive rainfall indirectly limits the vocal activity of the tropical rain-forest bird community. Temporal turnover of vocalizing species as well as within-day variation in vocal activity was highest during the transition period between dry and rainy seasons. We suggest that this could reflect differing timing in the breeding activity of particular feeding guilds to follow seasonal peaks of their diets.