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Ag3O was synthesized by jet-milling magnetron-sputtered Ag–Ag2O thin films. Heating the jet-milled powders in air and N2 from 40 to 148 °C at ambient pressure produced Ag3O-rich powders. The phase composition and unit-cell parameters of the jet-milled powders were measured as a function of temperature with in situ X-ray powder diffraction experiments from −186 to 293 °C. Ag3O was also produced by ball milling and sonicating jet-milled films at ambient conditions. The phase composition, unit-cell parameters, and thermal-reaction rates indicate nonstoichiometric Ag3O was produced from the reaction of metastable, nonstoichiometric Ag2O (cuprite structure) and ccp Ag. The thermal expansion of Ag3O is anisotropic; below 25 °C, the a-axis expansion is about twice the c-axis expansion resulting in a negative slope of c/a(T). The reversal of the sign of c/a(T) near 25 °C is dramatic. The thermal reaction is arrested when the temperature is rapidly increased from ambient to 130 °C. Ag3O is metastable and decreases its unit-cell volume during kinetic decomposition to Ag when heated above ambient temperature in air and nitrogen. The relative volume expansion of Ag3O is about 80% less than Ag at room temperature and below. The suite of nonstoichiometric Ag3O produced by heating displays a linear relation between c/a and unit-cell volume at room temperature. The c/a and unit-cell volume of a hydrothermally grown Ag3O single crystal reported in a published structure determination was the Ag-rich, low-volume end member of the linear series. The c/a and unit-cell volume are sensitive indicators of the oxygen content and state of disorder.
Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.
This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.
From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.
Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.
We propose a role for CO ice mantles in ion recombination reactions, and demonstrate how the subsequent fall in the degree of gas phase ionization decreases the time required for cloud collapse under gravity by a factor of 5-6. Experimental results demonstrate that CO films prepared at cryo-temperatures spontaneously harbour electric fields immediately upon growth. Using what is known from observations about prestellar cloud conditions in the ISM, we explain how this phenomenon can lead to an acceleration in ion recombination reaction rates. The result is a pathway for cloud collapse to occur before cloud disruption by supernova remnants.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTC). Clinical guidelines dictate that first-line treatments for BPSD are psychosocial and behavioral interventions; if these are unsuccessful, psychotropic medications may be trialed at low doses and their effects can be monitored.
There have previously been no studies with nationally representative samples to investigate psychotropic administration in LTCs in Australia. This study determines the prevalence of psychotropic administration in a representative stratified random sample of 446 residents living with dementia from 53 Australian LTCs. Questionnaire and medical chart data in this study is drawn from a larger cross-sectional, mixed methods study on quality of life in Australian LTCs.
It was found that 257 (58%) residents were prescribed psychotropic medications including: antipsychotics (n = 160, 36%), benzodiazepines (n = 136, 31%), antidepressants (n = 117, 26%), and anti-dementia medications (n = 9, 2%). BPSD were found to be very common in the sample, with 82% (n = 364) of participants experiencing at least one BPSD. The most prevalent BPSD were depression (n = 286, 70%) and agitation (n = 299, 67%).
Although detailed background information was not collected on individual cases, the prevalence found is indicative of systematic industry-wide, over-prescription of psychotropic medications as a first-line treatment for BPSD. This study highlights a clear need for further research and interventions in this area.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To investigate the role of platelet factor-4 (PF4) in B cell differentiation and develop strategies to better modulate B cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We use tissue culture and flow cytometry to examine the role of PF4 in B cell differentiation. We use wild type (WT) and PF4−/− mice on a C57Bl6/J background. PF4−/− mice have reduced in vivo B cell differentiation responses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that our studies will demonstrate that PF4 promotes B cell differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The significance of this project may be valuable in developing efficient methods and strategies to increase or limit B cell numbers in vitro and in human disease.
Phase identification of multi-phase materials provides essential information relating the material to its mechanical properties. In this study we selected DP980, a type of dual-phase steel, to investigate the content of martensite and ferrite grains. A combination of advanced techniques was used to provide detailed and precise information of the microstructure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to provide observations of the sample surface at different scales. Martensite and ferrite phases of DP980 were further identified and characterized using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning probe microscopy. Results obtained with nanoindentation tests confirmed that the differences in nanohardness values in single-phase grains are martensite and ferrite with different surface heights shown by scanning probe microscopy. The similarity shown in the image quality map and scanning probe microscopy proves that a large fraction of martensite can be distinguished in this undeformed material using image quality parameters obtained during electron backscatter diffraction imaging.
This article builds on existing studies of the long-run persistence of geographical variation in tolerance towards other ethnicities. Using English data, the study tests whether the persistent characteristic is an attitude towards a specific ethnic group, or is an underlying cultural trait of which the attitude towards a specific group is just one expression. It finds evidence for the latter, identifying geographical variation in anti-immigrant sentiment in the twenty-first century that is correlated with patterns of immigrant settlement in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, despite the fact that modern immigrant groups are quite different from those in the Middle Ages.
Non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘Triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Geophysical anomalies may signal the position of buried stones adding to the possibility of former stone arrangements, while laser scanning has provided detail on the manner in which the stones have been dressed; some subsequently carved with axe and dagger symbols. The probability that a lintelled bluestone trilithon formed an entrance in the north-east is signposted. This work has added detail that allows discussion on the question of whether the sarsen circle was a completed structure, although it is by no means conclusive in this respect. Instead, it is suggested that it was built as a façade, with other parts of the circuit added and with an entrance in the south.
Integrated non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Among them are periglacial and natural topographical structures, including a chalk mound that may have influenced site development. Some geophysical anomalies are similar to the post-holes in the car park of known Mesolithic date, while others beneath the barrows to the west may point to activity contemporary with Stonehenge itself. Evidence that the ‘North Barrow’ may be earlier in the accepted sequence is presented and the difference between the eastern and western parts of the enclosure ditch highlighted, while new data relating to the Y and Z Holes and to the presence of internal banks that mirror their respective circuits is also outlined.
Although it is well known that water is essential for human homeostasis and survival, only recently have we begun to understand its role in the maintenance of brain function. Herein, we integrate emerging evidence regarding the effects of both dehydration and additional acute water consumption on cognition and mood. Current findings in the field suggest that particular cognitive abilities and mood states are positively influenced by water consumption. The impact of dehydration on cognition and mood is particularly relevant for those with poor fluid regulation, such as the elderly and children. We critically review the most recent advances in both behavioural and neuroimaging studies of dehydration and link the findings to the known effects of water on hormonal, neurochemical and vascular functions in an attempt to suggest plausible mechanisms of action. We identify some methodological weaknesses, including inconsistent measurements in cognitive assessment and the lack of objective hydration state measurements as well as gaps in knowledge concerning mediating factors that may influence water intervention effects. Finally, we discuss how future research can best elucidate the role of water in the optimal maintenance of brain health and function.
A novel nonlinear teleoperation algorithm for simultaneous inertial parameters and force estimation at the master and slave sides of the teleoperation system is proposed. The scheme, called Extended Active Observer (EAOB), is an extension of the existing active observer. It provides effective force tracking at the master side with accurate position tracking at the slave side in the presence of inertial parameter variation and measurement noise. The proposed method only requires the measurement of robot position, and as a result significantly reduces the difficulty and cost of implementing bilateral teleoperation systems. The approach is described and its stability is analytically verified. The performance of the method is validated through computer simulation and compared with the Nicosia observer-based controller. According to the results, EAOB outperforms the Nicosia observer method and effectively rejects noise.
Crystal plasticity finite element method is a useful tool to investigate the anisotropic mechanical behaviors as well as the microstructure evolution of metallic materials and it is widely used on single crystals and polycrystalline materials. However, grain boundary involved mechanisms are barely included in the polycrystalline models, and modeling the interaction between the dislocation and the grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials in a physically consisstent way is still a long-standing, unsolved problem. In our analysis, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity finite element model is proposed, and the interaction between the dislocation density and the grain boundaries is included in the model kinematically. The model is then applied to Al bicrystals under 10% compression to investigate the effects of grain boundary character, e.g. grain boundary misorientation and grain boundary normal, on the stress state and the microstructure evolution. The modeling results suggest a reasonable correspondence with the experimental result and the grain boundary character plays a crucial role in the stress concentration and dislocation patterning.
Recent radiocarbon dates obtained from two soil cores taken through the Marlborough Castle mound, Wiltshire, show the main body of it to be a contemporaneous monument to Silbury Hill, dating to the second half of the 3rd millennium cal bc. In light of these dates, this paper considers the sequence identified within the cores, which includes two possible flood events early in the construction of the mound. It also describes four cores taken through the surrounding ditch, as well as small-scale work to the north-east of the mound. The topographic location of the mound in a low-lying area and close to rivers and springs is discussed, and the potential for Late Neolithic sites nearby is set out, with the land to the south of the mound identified as an area for future research. The paper ends with the prospect that other apparent mottes in Wiltshire and beyond may well also have prehistoric origins
The control of gene expression, and more significantly gene cohorts, requires tight transcriptional coordination and is an essential feature of probably all cells. In higher eukaryotes, the mechanisms used involve controlled modifications to both local and global DNA environments, principally through changes in chromatin structure as well as cis-element-driven mechanisms. Although the mechanisms regulating chromatin in terms of transcriptional permissiveness and the relation to developmental programmes and responses to the environment are becoming better understood for animal and fungal cells, it is only just beginning to become clear how these processes operate in other taxa, including the trypanosomatids. Recent advances are now illuminating how African trypanosomes regulate higher-order chromatin structure, and, further, how these mechanisms impact on the expression of major surface antigens that are of fundamental importance to life-cycle progression. It is now apparent that several mechanisms are rather more similar between animal and fungal cells and trypanosomes than it originally appeared, but some aspects do involve gene products unique to trypanosomes. Therefore, both evolutionarily common and novel mechanisms cohabit in trypanosomes, offering both important biological insights and possible therapeutic opportunity.
Ferritic/martensitic steels such as HT9 steel, is used for structural components in nuclear power plants because of its high strength and good swelling resistance. Understanding the mechanical behavior of these steels is quite important, since it will affect the strength and the life of the component. In this study, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity finite element model is developed in which different types of dislocation evolves on the activated 12 slip systems in alpha-iron. The dislocation evolves in the form of closed loop and the dislocation density is tracked as internal state variable, the generation and annihilation of dislocations are modeled based on the dislocation interaction laws. The plastic flow is calculated based on the dislocation densities and a generalized Taylor equation is used as the hardening law, and the hardening is assumed to be isotropic in this study. The evolution of polycrystal texture of alpha-iron is presented in the form of pole figures, which indicate the orientation spread and agree with the experimental result. The model also indicates the inhomogeneous dislocation distribution and stress concentration at the grain boundaries.