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For about a century there has been a modest research effort to explain the nature of prodigies and savants. Savant research emerged out of the medical field and centered on deficit/remediation. Research with prodigies generally consists of case studies by psychologists with an interest in the manifestation and development of extreme talent, sometimes as part of the “gifted child” movement in the United States, more recently as anomalies in developmental psychology.
Research into both phenomena evolved to incorporate new questions, including debates over the role of general versus specific intellectual abilities in talent development. This chapter summarizes and reviews research on prodigies and savants. It also reviews what, to date, has been found about the nature and interplay of general and specific intellectual strengths and weaknesses more generally, offering a possible role for both specific talent and general ability.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Causes of falls in older adults are common, multifactorial, and can lead to significant injury. This before-and-after study evaluated the benefits of a Fall Prevention Mobile Clinic (FPMC) in reducing the risk of falling in older adults in British Columbia, Canada. Four hundred seventy-six participants (average age of 83.6 years) enrolled in the study and were followed for 12 months after attending the FPMC. At 12-month follow-up, the mean percentage uptake of fall prevention recommendations was 48.8 per cent (SD = 25.7%), the Timed Up and Go mobility measure improved from a median of 19.04 seconds to 17.45 seconds and the number of participants falling decreased from 64.8 per cent (in the 12 months before attending the clinic) to 55.6 per cent (in the 12 months after attending the clinic) (p = .012). After attending the FPMC, participants acted on recommendations, improved mobility and decreased their risk of future falls.
During the past decade, solar power has experienced transformative price declines, enabling it to grow to supply 1% of U.S. and world electricity. Addressing grid integration challenges, increasing grid flexibility, and further reducing cost will enable even greater potential for solar as an electricity source.
During the past decade, solar power has experienced transformative price declines, enabling it to become a viable electricity source that is supplying 1% of U.S. and world electricity. Further cost reductions are expected to enable substantially greater solar deployment, and new Department of Energy cost targets for utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar thermal power are $0.03/kW h and $0.05/kW h by 2030, respectively. However, cost reductions are no longer the only significant challenge for PV—addressing grid integration challenges and increasing grid flexibility are critical as the penetration of PV electricity on the grid increases. The development of low cost energy storage is particularly synergistic with low cost PV, as cost declines in each technology are expected to support greater market opportunities for the other.
FOLLOWING a referendum on 23 June 2016 in which 52% of voters (38% of the total electorate) had expressed a preference for the UK to leave the EU, the Government announced that it would start the process of withdrawal, in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (“TEU”), by notifying the European Council of the UK's decision, exercising the Government's prerogative power to conduct foreign relations. A number of legal challenges were fast-tracked to the Supreme Court. In R. (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union (Birnie and others intervening)  UKSC 5;  2 W.L.R. 583 after an expedited hearing, the Court decided two issues: (1) whether the Government could exercise its power under the royal prerogative to give notice, or needed an Act of Parliament to authorise the giving of notice; and (2) whether the Government required the consent of devolved legislatures in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales before giving notice or introducing to Parliament a Bill authorising the giving of notice. The Court sat unprecedentedly with all 11 serving members. On issue (1), the Court, by an 8–3 majority, held that an Act of Parliament would be required in order to authorise the giving of notice. On issue (2), the Court unanimously held that there was no legal requirement for consent by the devolved institutions.
SECTION 3(2) of the Immigration Act 1971 requires the Home Secretary to lay down Immigration Rules regulating “entry into and stay in the United Kingdom” by “persons required by this Act to have leave to enter”. The rules are glossed by voluminous, extra-statutory, internal guidance and Immigration Directorate Instructions (hereafter referred to as “guidance”) drawn up in the Home Office.
The main question that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) pose is whether “what and how we see is functionally independent from what and how we think, know, desire, act, and so forth” (sect. 2, para. 1). We synthesize a collection of concerns from an interdisciplinary set of coauthors regarding F&S's assumptions and appeals to intuition, resulting in their treatment of visual perception as context-free.
This collection of essays explores themes and controversies (legal, political and scholarly) in public law which are subjects of current debate in that area, while also (we hope) contributing to those debates from both practical and theoretical perspectives. The purposes of this Introduction are to set the scene by outlining the political context in which public law and its scholarship have developed over the past forty or so years, and to locate within that context and in relation to each other some of the themes which our contributors develop in the chapters which follow.
The context in which public law develops and operates
At the risk of pre-empting what follows, one can say that public law is concerned with the state – its structures, the actions and interactions of its institutions and people who operate them, the principles and mechanisms on which it runs – and its relationships with other entities and individuals inside and outside the state. These structures and relationships are not static. They change constantly in response to developments in ideas about the role of states in society and to changing political dynamics. Whilst many states are thought to be stable, they are at best maintaining an unstable equilibrium between competing forces, and can easily be tipped out of that equilibrium by unexpected changes. These may be economic or financial, as we saw in 2008 when shocks to the banking system of much of the western world reduced many states to dependency on other states and international organisations. As a result, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Portugal, among other states, suffered a severe loss of control over their political as well as economic futures. This may prove to have been only a temporary phenomenon, but it is hard to believe that it will not have a long-term effect on states’ assessments of their own relative independence and authority. Other challenges to states come in the form of political or economic ideologies. Over the last thirty-five years, there have been huge changes in ideas about the state in many countries.
Attaching the adjective ‘public’ to ‘law’ suggests that one is making two distinctions: first, between ‘public law’ and ‘non-public law’; secondly, between ‘public law’ and other tools for organizing the ‘public’ domain. This chapter attempts to identify what, if anything, distinguishes ‘public law’ in each of these ways. It suggests that the distinctions are loose, because they are drawn for different reasons and in different historical and institutional settings. When trying to make the various dividing lines coalesce, one inevitably produces a line which is blurry and wobbly, rather than one that is sharp and clearly focused. When such a line is converted into norms and those norms are applied to problems in the world, we should not be surprised or disappointed that they often leave room for doubt as to how to classify a particular issue, institution, process or claim. Recognizing that reality, however, does not entail discarding the idea that there are fundamentally important differences between law and non-law and between the public and non-public domains. There are core areas in which the classification is not in doubt, and, when it is contested, the dispute alerts us to the need to think hard about which norms and processes ought properly to be used in the circumstances. When people feel unease when trying to select mechanisms and rules with which to resolve controversies, we know that we are in the blurry area, and need to refer to meta-legal norms in order to clarify the issue.
When and why do the distinctions matter? From a practical lawyer's point of view, the distinctiveness of ‘public law’ matters when a state has a special procedure for implementing ‘public law’, or special rules of ‘public law’, or both. One needs to be able then to decide, and advise clients (who may be governmental bodies or ordinary people) as to whether it is more appropriate, or better for the client, to have an issue treated as one of ‘public’ rather than ‘non-public’ law, or as properly allocated to ‘non-law’ techniques of resolution, whether public or private. Lawyers advising clients want to help the clients to get the best possible outcome from their point of view. For individuals confronting governmental bodies, this usually means getting the best result in the particular case.
The Cambridge Companion to Public Law examines key themes, debates and issues in contemporary public law. The book identifies and draws out five key themes: the notions of government and the state; the place of the state and public law in the world at large; relationships between institutions and officials within the state; the legitimacy of institutions; and the identity and value of public law in relation to politics. The book also presents a contemporary examination, taking account of the substantial changes witnessed in this area in recent decades and of the resulting need to reassess orthodox accounts of the subject. Written by leading authorities drawn from across the common law world, their approach is rigorous, engaging and highly accessible. This Companion acts as both a thoughtful introduction and a collection that consciously moves the discipline forward.
Client-responsive behaviours occur commonly among residents in long-term care (LTC) settings; direct-care staff, however, receive little education, support, or opportunities to discuss and collaborate on managing such behaviours. Our participatory action project introduced mental health huddles to support staff in discussing and managing client-responsive behaviours in long-term care. This research project engaged direct-care staff (e.g., personal support workers, registered practical nurses, housekeeping staff, and registered nurses) in learning how to use these huddles. Staff workers used huddles as a forum to stay informed, review work, problem solve, and develop person-centered action plans. Fifty-six huddles occurred over a 12-week period; two to seven direct-care staff participated in each huddle. Focus groups indicated improved staff collaboration, teamwork, support, and communication when discussing specific responsive behaviours. Huddles provided LTC staff with the opportunity to collaborate and discuss strategies to optimize resident care. Further research on how huddles affect resident care outcomes is needed.
Section I shows that the idea, founded on the “principle of legality”, that all legal flaws make a decision void as a matter of law is erroneous. Infringing a legal requirement may not affect validity, or may make a decision only voidable. Section II shows the significance of distinctions between various stages of decision-making processes, and between different types of issues for judges, and argues that case law shows that seven guiding principles operate alongside the “principle of legality”. Section III concludes that these common-law principles reflect professional practice and provide a realistic basis for predictable, normatively legitimate administrative law.