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Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
Since the introduction of laser-assisted atom probe, analysis of nonconductive materials by atom probe tomography (APT) has become more routine. To obtain high-quality data, a number of acquisition variables needs to be optimized for the material of interest, and for the specific question being addressed. Here, the rutile (TiO2) reference material ‘Windmill Hill Quartzite,’ used for secondary ion mass spectrometry U–Pb dating and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, was analyzed by laser-assisted APT to constrain optimal running conditions. Changes in acquisition parameters such as laser energy and detection rate are evaluated in terms of their effect on background noise, ionization state, hit-multiplicity, and thermal tails. Higher laser energy results in the formation of more complex molecular ions and affects the ionization charge state. At lower energies, background noise and hit-multiplicity increase, but thermal tails shorten. There are also correlations between the acquisition voltage and several of these metrics, which remain to be fully understood. The results observed when varying the acquisition parameters will be discussed in detail in the context of utilizing APT analysis of rutile within geology.
The Yellow Sea region is of high global importance for waterbird populations, but recent systematic bird count data enabling identification of the most important sites are relatively sparse for some areas. Surveys of waterbirds at three sites on the coast of southern Jiangsu Province, China, in 2014 and 2015 produced peak counts of international importance for 24 species, including seven globally threatened and six Near Threatened species. The area is of particular global importance for the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea (peak count across all three study sites: 62 in spring  and 225 in autumn  and ‘Endangered’ Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer (peak count across all three study sites: 210 in spring  and 1,110 in autumn ). The southern Jiangsu coast is therefore currently the most important migratory stopover area in the world, in both spring and autumn, for both species. Several serious and acute threats to waterbirds were recorded at these study sites. Paramount is the threat of large-scale land claim which would completely destroy intertidal mudflats of critical importance to waterbirds. Degradation of intertidal mudflat habitats through the spread of invasive Spartina, and mortality of waterbirds by entrapment in nets or deliberate poisoning are also real and present serious threats here. Collisions with, and displacement by, wind turbines and other structures, and industrial chemical pollution may represent additional potential threats. We recommend the rapid establishment of effective protected areas for waterbirds in the study area, maintaining large areas of open intertidal mudflat, and the urgent removal of all serious threats currently faced by waterbirds here.
Levels of pollution, including contamination by toxic metals, in the Thames estuary reduced over the last four decades of the 20th century. This 2014 study investigates whether the declines in the bioavailabilities of trace metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) have continued in the 21st century, using a suite of littoral biomonitors also employed in 2001 – the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, the strandline, talitrid amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the estuarine barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus. Bioaccumulated concentrations represent relative measures of the total bioavailabilities of each metal to the biomonitor over a previous time period, and can be compared over space and over time. Trace metal bioavailabilities varied along the estuary, and, in general, fell between 2001 and 2014, a reflection of the continuing remediation of the Thames estuary from its severely polluted state in the middle of the 20th century.
In this paper we undertake a quantitative analysis of the dynamic process by which ice underneath a dry porous debris layer melts. We show that the incorporation of debris-layer airflow into a theoretical model of glacial melting can capture the empirically observed features of the so-called Østrem curve (a plot of the melt rate as a function of debris depth). Specifically, we show that the turning point in the Østrem curve can be caused by two distinct mechanisms: the increase in the proportion of ice that is debris-covered and/or a reduction in the evaporative heat flux as the debris layer thickens. This second effect causes an increased melt rate because the reduction in (latent) energy used for evaporation increases the amount of energy available for melting. Our model provides an explicit prediction for the melt rate and the temperature distribution within the debris layer, and provides insight into the relative importance of the two effects responsible for the maximum in the Østrem curve. We use the data of Nicholson and Benn (2006) to show that our model is consistent with existing empirical measurements.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is becoming a commonly applied technique in geomorphology. However, its use in the study of subglacial bedforms has yet to be fully explored and exploited. This paper presents the results of a GPR feasibility study conducted on a drumlinized terrain in Cumbria, UK, where five drumlins were investigated using multiple radar antenna frequencies. The site was selected for the presence of nearby bedrock outcrops, suggesting a shallow drumlinized diamict–bedrock contact and a permeable lithology. Despite the clayey sediment and unfavourable weather conditions, a considerable penetration depth of ~12 m was achieved when using a 50 MHz antenna, with a separation of 1 m, trace spacing of 1 m and 128-fold vertical stack. Results indicate that the drumlinized diamict is in direct erosional contact with the bedrock. While the internal drumlin geometry is generally chaotic on the stoss side, evidence of layering dipping downflow at an angle greater than the drumlin surface profile was found on the lee side. The inter-drumlin areas comprise ~4 m of infill sediment that masks part of the original drumlin profile. Overall, this study indicates that GPR can be deployed successfully in the study of glacial bedform sedimentary architecture.
In the May 1997 general election ‘New Labour’ won a landslide victory. The roots of the New Labour project lay in four successive, traumatic election defeats experienced by the party over the period from May 1979 to April 1992. The gradual transformation of Old Labour during these years came to fruition in 1997 and it produced a spectacular electoral success under the leadership of Tony Blair. Two more victories followed in 2001 and 2005, making Blair the only Labour leader in history to win three successive general elections. In May 2010, the New Labour era ended. Although the 2010 general election produced a hung parliament, Labour's much reduced share of seats made it very difficult – virtually impossible – for the party to continue in power as part of a viable coalition government. After five days of intensive interparty negotiations, Gordon Brown resigned as prime minister and Conservative Leader, David Cameron, was invited to form a government. The result was the Conservative–Liberal Democrat Coalition, Britain's first such government in over half a century.
In previous books, Political Choice in Britain (Clarke et al., 2004b) and Performance Politics and the British Voter (Clarke et al., 2009b), we have investigated alternative explanations of voting behaviour that have been proposed to account for the fates of British political parties both in the ‘New Labour’ era and more generally. We have provided a theoretical account of electoral choice which applies not only to Britain but also to other contemporary mature democracies such as Canada, France, Germany and the United States (see e.g. Clarke et al., 2009a; Clarke and Whitten, 2013; Lewis-Beck et al., 2012). According to this account, electoral choice in these countries is best understood as the product of the process of ‘valence’ or ‘performance’ politics. In a world of valence politics – where stakes are frequently high and risk is often better described as uncertainty – voters make choices primarily on the basis of evaluations of rival parties’ perceived abilities to deliver policy outcomes on salient issues involving broad consensus about what government should do.
In Affluence, Austerity and Electoral Change in Britain we have investigated factors affecting electoral choice and change in modern Britain. Beginning with the landslide 1997 general election that brought Tony Blair's New Labour Party to power, analyses show that the valence politics model that emphasizes party performance judgments, party leader images and flexible partisan attachments does much to account for voting decisions and patterns of party support in inter-election periods. Spatial models of party competition that focus on distances between parties and voters on positional issues dividing the electorate are relevant, but their effects are secondary. Sociological models featuring social class or other sociodemographic characteristics have much weaker effects. As discussed in Chapters 2 and 3, the valence politics model dominated throughout the Blair years and its explanatory power continued unabated during Gordon's Brown's premiership.
Chapters 4 and 5 demonstrate that valence politics considerations also did much to shape the choices voters made in the 2010 general election – the contest that ended the New Labour era and set the stage for a Conservative–Liberal Democrat Coalition Government. The impact of leader images was dramatically illustrated by the first-ever leaders’ debate when voters’ highly favourable reactions to Nick Clegg's performance boosted the Liberal Democrats’ standing in the polls and reconfigured the election campaign. Analyses show that both the Air War – the national campaign in the media – and the Ground War – local campaigns across the country – were important for understanding voting behaviour in 2010.
This appendix describes key variables in several models analyzed in various chapters. For additional information, please contact Harold Clarke: firstname.lastname@example.org. BES data, questionnaires and technical information are available for free download at: http://bes2009–10.org.
Voting in the 2010 General Election: Respondents were asked: (a) ‘Talking to people about the General Election on May 6th, we have found that a lot people didn't manage to vote. How about you – did you manage to vote in the General Election?’ If a respondent indicated voting, they were asked: (b) ‘Which party did you vote for in the General Election?’ In the binomial logit analyses of Labour voting, Labour voters are scored 1 and voters for all other parties are scored 0. In the multinomial logit analyses of opposition party voting Conservative voters are scored 1, Liberal Democrat voters are scored 2, voters for all other parties except Labour are scored 3, and Labour voters are scored 4.
Partisanship: Partisan attachments are measured using the first question
in the standard BES party identification sequence: ‘Generally
speaking, do you think of yourself as Labour, Conservative, Liberal
Democrat or what?’ Party identification variables are a series of 0–
1 dummies with ‘no’ and ‘don’t know’ responses designated as the