To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Objectives: Studies of neurocognitively elite older adults, termed SuperAgers, have identified clinical predictors and neurobiological indicators of resilience against age-related neurocognitive decline. Despite rising rates of older persons living with HIV (PLWH), SuperAging (SA) in PLWH remains undefined. We aimed to establish neuropsychological criteria for SA in PLWH and examined clinically relevant correlates of SA. Methods: 734 PLWH and 123 HIV-uninfected participants between 50 and 64 years of age underwent neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluations. SA was defined as demographically corrected (i.e., sex, race/ethnicity, education) global neurocognitive performance within normal range for 25-year-olds. Remaining participants were labeled cognitively normal (CN) or impaired (CI) based on actual age. Chi-square and analysis of variance tests examined HIV group differences on neurocognitive status and demographics. Within PLWH, neurocognitive status differences were tested on HIV disease characteristics, medical comorbidities, and everyday functioning. Multinomial logistic regression explored independent predictors of neurocognitive status. Results: Neurocognitive status rates and demographic characteristics differed between PLWH (SA=17%; CN=38%; CI=45%) and HIV-uninfected participants (SA=35%; CN=55%; CI=11%). In PLWH, neurocognitive groups were comparable on demographic and HIV disease characteristics. Younger age, higher verbal IQ, absence of diabetes, fewer depressive symptoms, and lifetime cannabis use disorder increased likelihood of SA. SA reported increased independence in everyday functioning, employment, and health-related quality of life than non-SA. Conclusions: Despite combined neurological risk of aging and HIV, youthful neurocognitive performance is possible for older PLWH. SA relates to improved real-world functioning and may be better explained by cognitive reserve and maintenance of cardiometabolic and mental health than HIV disease severity. Future research investigating biomarker and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity) correlates of SA may help identify modifiable neuroprotective factors against HIV-related neurobiological aging. (JINS, 2019, 25, 507–519)
Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
Both qualitative and quantitative research routinely fall short, producing misleading causal inferences. Because these weaknesses are in part different, we are convinced that multimethod strategies are productive. Each approach can provide additional leverage that helps address shortcomings of the other. This position is quite distinct from that of Beck, who believes that the two types of analysis cannot be adjoined. We review examples of adjoining that Beck dismisses, based on what we see as his outdated view of qualitative methods. By contrast, we show that these examples demonstrate how qualitative and quantitative analysis can work together.
The discussion of qualitative and quantitative research methods in political science has followed a “long arc of development,” according to Andrew Bennett (this symposium). He sees our book Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Standards (RSI) as a “key turning point” in this development and as contributing to a more pluralistic vision of methodology. We would certainly be gratified if we have indeed made this contribution. Yet this is an ongoing discussion, and this symposium points to fruitful directions this discussion can take.
We present new results derived from high-resolution optical spectra of the τ Boo system, secured in March-May 2000. The results do not show the same feature reported by Cameron et al (1999) as a candidate reflected-light signature from the planet. Together with earlier results from the 1998 and 1999 seasons, the new data yield a 99.9% upper limit on the opposition planet/star flux ratio ∊ < 3.5 × 10−5 between 387.4 and 586.3 nm, a factor 3 deeper than the upper limit of Charbonneau et al (1999). For an assumed planet radius Rp = 1.2RJ, the upper limit on the mean geometric albedo is p < 0.22, 40% that of Jupiter. We find new evidence that the star's rotation is synchronised with the planet's orbital motion. Using a Monte Carlo analysis we infer that the planet's mass must lie in the range 5.5 to 10 times the mass of Jupiter.
Concerns about nutrient loads into our waters have focused attention on poultry litter applications. Like many states with a large poultry industry, Georgia recently designed a subsidy program to facilitate the transportation of poultry litter out of vulnerable watersheds. This paper uses a transportation model to examine the necessity of a poultry litter subsidy to achieve water protection goals in Georgia. We also demonstrate the relationship between diesel and synthetic fertilizer prices and the value of poultry litter. Results suggest that a well-functioning market would be able to remove excess litter from vulnerable watersheds in the absence of a subsidy.
Process tracing is a fundamental tool of qualitative analysis. This method is often invoked by scholars who carry out within-case analysis based on qualitative data, yet frequently it is neither adequately understood nor rigorously applied. This deficit motivates this article, which offers a new framework for carrying out process tracing. The reformulation integrates discussions of process tracing and causal-process observations, gives greater attention to description as a key contribution, and emphasizes the causal sequence in which process-tracing observations can be situated. In the current period of major innovation in quantitative tools for causal inference, this reformulation is part of a wider, parallel effort to achieve greater systematization of qualitative methods. A key point here is that these methods can add inferential leverage that is often lacking in quantitative analysis. This article is accompanied by online teaching exercises, focused on four examples from American politics, two from comparative politics, three from international relations, and one from public health/epidemiology.
Herein we present methods for synthesizing monodisperse mesoporous silica particles and silica particles with bimodal porosity by templating with surfactant micelle and microemulsion phases. The fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to concentration and micellization of the surfactant. At the same time, the silica solidifies around the surfactant structures, forming equally sized mesoporous particles. We show that hierarchically bimodal porous structures can be obtained by templating silica microparticles with a specially designed surfactant micelle/microemulsion mixture. Oil, water, and surfactant liquid mixtures exhibit very complex phase behavior. Depending on the conditions, such mixtures give rise to highly organized structures. A proper selection of the type and concentration of surfactants determines the structuring at the nanoscale level. Tuning the phase state by adjusting the surfactant composition and concentration allows for the controlled design of a system where microemulsion droplets coexist with smaller surfactant micellar structures. The microemulsion droplet and micellar dimensions determine the two types of pore sizes.
Self-assembly is a promising technique to overcome fundamental limitations with integrating, packaging, and generally handling individual electronic-related components with characteristic lengths significantly smaller than 1 mm. Here we briefly summarize the use of capillary and magnetic forces to realize two example microscale systems. In the first example, we use capillary forces from a low melting point solder alloy to integrate 500 μm square, 100 μm thick silicon chips with thermally and chemically sensitive metal-polymer hinge actuators, for potential medical applications. The second example demonstrates a path towards self-assembling 3-D silicon circuits formed out of 280 μm sized building blocks, utilizing both capillary forces from a low melting point solder alloy and magnetic forces from integrated, permanent magnets. In the latter example, the utilization of magnetic forces combined with capillary forces improved the assembly yield to 7.8% over 0.1% achieved previously with capillary forces alone.
In many biological applications, such as cell therapy and drug delivery, there is a need to enhance diffusion by enabling chemical transport in all three dimensions. We highlight this need by comparing diffusion in a conventional two-dimensional (2D) microwell with diffusion in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic microwell using numerical simulations. We also describe the fabrication of hollow polymeric (and biocompatible) cubic microwells and microwell arrays. We emphasize that since the assembly process is compatible with 2D lithographic patterning, porosity can be precisely patterned in all three dimensions. Hence, this platform provides considerable versatility for a variety of applications.
Abstract. Graphical models for causation can be set up using fewer hypothetical counterfactuals than are commonly employed. Invariance of error distributions may be essential for causal inference, but the errors themselves need not be invariant. Graphs can be interpreted using conditional distributions so that one can better address connections between the mathematical framework and causality in the world. The identification problem is posed in terms of conditionals. As will be seen, causal relationships cannot be inferred from a data set by running regressions unless there is substantial prior knowledge about the mechanisms that generated the data. There are few successful applications of graphical models, mainly because few causal pathways can be excluded on a priori grounds. The invariance conditions themselves remain to be assessed.
In this chapter, I review the logical basis for inferring causation from regression equations, proceeding by example. The starting point is a simple regression, next is a path model, and then simultaneous equations (for supply and demand). After that come nonlinear graphical models.
The key to making a causal inference from nonexperimental data by regression is some kind of invariance, exogeneity being a further issue. Parameters need to be invariant to interventions. This well-known condition will be stated here with a little more precision than is customary. Invariance is also needed for errors or error distributions, a topic that has attracted less attention.
Abstract. The logit model is often used to analyze experimental data. However, randomization does not justify the model, so the usual estimators can be inconsistent. A consistent estimator is proposed. Neyman's non-parametric setup is used as a benchmark. In this setup, each subject has two potential responses, one if treated and the other if untreated; only one of the two responses can be observed. Beside the mathematics, there are simulation results, a brief review of the literature, and some recommendations for practice.
The logit model is often fitted to experimental data. As explained below, randomization does not justify the assumptions behind the model. Thus, the conventional estimator of log odds is difficult to interpret; an alternative will be suggested. Neyman's setup is used to define parameters and prove results. (Grammatical niceties apart, the terms “logit model” and “logistic regression” are used interchangeably.)
After explaining the models and estimators, we present simulations to illustrate the findings. A brief review of the literature describes the history and current usage. Some practical recommendations are derived from the theory. Analytic proofs are sketched at the end of the chapter.
“Son, no matter how far you travel, or how smart you get, always remember this: Someday, somewhere, a guy is going to show you a nice brand-new deck of cards on which the seal is never broken, and this guy is going to offer to bet you that the jack of spades will jump out of this deck and squirt cider in your ear. But, son, do not bet him, for as sure as you do you are going to get an ear full of cider.”
Abstract. After sketching the conflict between objectivists and subjectivists on the foundations of statistics, this chapter discusses an issue facing statisticians of both schools, namely, model validation. Statistical models originate in the study of games of chance and have been successfully applied in the physical and life sciences. However, there are basic problems in applying the models to social phenomena; some of the difficulties will be pointed out. Hooke's law will be contrasted with regression models for salary discrimination, the latter being a fairly typical application in the social sciences.
What is probability?
For a contemporary mathematician, probability is easy to define, as a countably additive set function on a σ-field, with a total mass of one. This definition, perhaps cryptic for non-mathematicians, was introduced by A. N. Kolmogorov around 1930, and has been extremely convenient for mathematical work; theorems can be stated with clarity, and proved with rigor.