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In this article, David Chandler challenges the often dismissive interpretation of Catherine Johnson’s hugely successful Mamma Mia! (1999) as a sunny, upbeat, lightweight musical. Johnson’s earlier dramatic work was of a more serious cast, and returned repeatedly to scenes of damaging, often exploitative, intergenerational desire. This interest continues in Mamma Mia! though commercial imperatives meant it had to be suppressed and displaced. As Sophie, the heroine, secretly meets the three middle-aged men who could be her father, but who have no idea she may be their daughter, the danger that they may be sexually attracted to her – one of them quickly labels her a ‘minx’ – becomes a subter ranean force shaping the fates of most of the central protagonists and the final surprise irresolution of the paternity plot. Intergenerational relationships blossom in Mamma Mia!, but they are treated differently from the relationships between couples of similar ages. David Chandler is a professor in the English Department at Doshisha Univ er sity, Kyoto. His background is in literary Romanticism, but since 2008 he has also pub lished widely on the history of musical theatre in Britain. He is a director of Retrospect Opera.
Framing tulipmania in terms of sequestered capital – capital whose quantities, usages and future yields are hidden from market participants – offers a richer and more straightforward explanation for this famous financial bubble than extant alternatives. Simply put, the underground planting of the tulip bulbs in 1636 blindfolded seventeenth-century Dutch speculators regarding the planted quantities and their development and future yields. The price boom began in mid November 1636, coinciding with the time of planting. The price collapse occurred in the first week of February 1637, coinciding with the time of bulb sprouting – signaling bulb quantities, development and future yields. Also consistent with our explanation is the initial price collapse location, in the Dutch city of Haarlem, where temperature and geography favored early sprouting and sprout visibility.
It is taken as a truism that today we live in a globalized and interconnected world, but what has been less analyzed are the implications that this has for liberal modernist understandings of political and ethical responsibility. Particularly problematic today is the distinction between public political responsibility and personal moral responsibility. The boundaries between the public and the personal, and the political and the ethical, appear much less clear in a world in which we are all more interconnected and interdependent. This blurring is crucial to understanding the emergence of new paternalist approaches to international regimes. Paternalist approaches imply that some actors have a duty of responsibility or a duty of care for others. In formal paternalist regimes this duty is formalized in law and formal powers and responsibilities are constituted (see the Introduction to this volume). New paternalism claims concern an informal understanding of a duty of care and can thus be made over a wide range of issues or problems, including concerns over the environment. The key point of this chapter is to highlight that this approach implies a very different technique of governance that works on the basis not of assumptions of direct duties and responsibilities but of indirect ones.
The paternalist duty of responsibility for others is less likely to be applied directly through formal political and legal authorization but indirectly through consideration of the unintended outcomes of policy frameworks and social interactions. However, it is important to analyze these discussions of more mediated forms of policy influence which are both part of the process of reshaping and legitimizing the paternalist discourse of international policy responsibilities and the duty of governance over others. Whereas direct paternal duties involve governance over the other and deny to the other the formal rights of equality and autonomy, indirect paternal duties involve a different technique of governance, operating on the basis of a reflexive, responsive governance of the self through a new sensitivity or awareness of the embedded, relational consequences that our self-governance has for others.
New paternalism puts the other at the center of the ethico-political duties of international regimes and international actors but does not imply the problematic claims of Western moral and political superiority, nor incur the resistance, which old paternalist techniques of governance incite (see Autesserre, Chapter 5, this volume).
This collective case study examined how and why specific organizational decision-making processes transpired at 2 large suburban county health departments in lower New York State during their response to Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The study also examined the relationships that the agencies developed with other emerging and established organizations within their respective health systems.
In investigating these themes, the authors conducted in-depth, one-on-one interviews with 30 senior-level public health staff and first responders; reviewed documentation; and moderated 2 focus group discussions with 17 participants.
Although a natural hazard such as a hurricane was not an unexpected event for these health departments, they nevertheless confronted a number of unforeseen challenges during the response phase: prolonged loss of power and fuel, limited situational awareness of the depth and breadth of the storm’s impact among disaster-exposed populations, and coordination problems with a number of organizations that emerged in response to the disaster.
Public health staff had few plans or protocols to guide them and often found themselves improvising and problem-solving with new organizations in the context of an overburdened health care system (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:436–442).
Large numbers permeate political life, and students of political science can expect to encounter a wide range of numbers in newspaper articles, course readings, and statistics. Recent research in cognitive psychology demonstrates that American adults make systematic errors when comparing numbers in the millions, billions, and trillions. Political decisions made by voters often require weighing large quantities that range across many orders of magnitude, which is difficult without at least a basic understanding of relative magnitudes. If students also lack an understanding of large numbers, professors cannot meaningfully teach them about political phenomena involving such magnitudes. The authors designed and tested an exercise to improve students’ accuracy in dealing with large magnitudes, which had immediate and sustained effects on their political judgments about information involving large numbers.
On 17 October 1788 George III summoned his chief doctor, Sir George Baker, to complain of sleeplessness, stomach pains and cramps. Baker thought the King was developing gout. Within days other symptoms began appearing: George III talked constantly, but often incoherently, and demonstrated extreme restlessness. ‘Delirium’ was whispered in court circles. In general his condition progressively worsened, and in early November he was rumoured to be dying, perhaps even dead. By mid-November the illness no longer seemed life-threatening, but the doctors feared what the Prince of Wales referred to as ‘durable insanity’, and could not agree on what to do. At the end of the month application was made to the Rev. Francis Willis, who specialized in mental illness, and kept a private asylum in Lincolnshire. During December Willis and his son, John, assumed control of the King's treatment, though they still had to consult the other doctors. Their methods were harsh, involving extensive use of a strait-waistcoat and other restraining devices. Despite, or because of, such treatments, from around mid-January 1789 the King began to recover, and by the second half of February was functioning more or less as normal. In March his recovery prompted widespread public celebrations. George III was not cured, however; shorter attacks of the illness followed in 1801 and 1804, and when the King fell ill again in 1810 there was to be no recovery. Senility combined with the old – still undiagnosed – illness, and by 1812 he was living in a strange, fantasy world of his own. He hardly ever left that world, and then only briefly and uncertainly, in his remaining eight years of life.
George III's illness has been described as ‘probably the most famous and most momentous in English history’. It is ‘famous and … momentous’ not just because of the celebrity of the invalid, or the duration of his afflictions, but because the illness itself was so mysterious, transforming the King's character in disturbing ways, and because so much was at stake politically, especially in 1788–9. No contemporary doctor could explain the King's malady.
Over the last decade there has been a shift towards critical understandings of ‘liberal peace’ approaches to international intervention, which argue that local culture holds the key to the effectiveness of peace interventions. In this ‘bottom-up’ approach, peace, reconciliation, and a ‘culture of law’ then become secondary effects of sociocultural norms and values. However, these liberal peace critiques have remained trapped in the paradox of liberal peace: the inability to go beyond the binaries of liberal universalism and cultural relativism. This understanding will be contrasted with the rise of ‘resilience’ approaches to intervention – which build on this attention to the particular context of application but move beyond this paradox through philosophical pragmatism and the focus on concrete social practices. This article clarifies the nature of this shift through the focus on the shifting understanding of international intervention to address the failings of the ‘war on drugs’ in the Americas.
The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (evergreen or holm oak) such as Quercus sapotifolia, Q. eliptica and Q. elongata, which have shiny, narrow, elliptical, or oblong leaves, quantitative habitat targets are useful for effectively incorporating this information into conservation planning and forest management practices. We analysed data on wintering Golden-cheeked Warblers collected during the non-breeding season in Honduras from 1996 to 1998 to identify quantitative targets for habitat conditions for this species. Data on warbler abundance were collected using line transect surveys located in montane pine-oak forests in a stratified-random fashion. Habitat data were collected at five 0.04 ha plots on these same transects and the averaged values used as predictors of Golden-cheeked Warbler abundance. We found that Golden-cheeked Warblers were strongly associated with the basal area of encino oaks and density of ‘roble’ oaks, such as Q. segoviensis, Q. purulhana and Q. rugosa, which have large, lobed leaves. Density of Golden-cheeked Warblers peaked at ≈ 5.6 m2 ha–1 basal area of encino and ≈7 roble oaks ha–1. These values can be used to identify quantitative habitat targets that can be directly incorporated into forest management practices to ensure that these activities maintain habitat conditions necessary for their use by Golden-cheeked Warblers.
For many commentators the lack of success in international statebuilding efforts has been explained through the critical discourse of ‘liberal peace’, where it is assumed that ‘liberal’ Western interests and assumptions have influenced policymaking leading to counterproductive results. At the core of the critique is the assumption that the liberal peace approach has sought to reproduce and impose Western models: the reconstruction of ‘Westphalian’ frameworks of state sovereignty; the liberal framework of individual rights and winner-takes-all elections; and neo-liberal free market economic programmes. This article challenges this view of Western policymaking and suggests that post-Cold War post-conflict intervention and statebuilding can be better understood as a critique of classical liberal assumptions about the autonomous subject – framed in terms of sovereignty, law, democracy and the market. The conflating of discursive forms with their former liberal content creates the danger that critiques of liberal peace can rewrite post-Cold War intervention in ways that exaggerate the liberal nature of the policy frameworks and act as apologia, excusing policy failure on the basis of the self-flattering view of Western policy elites: that non-Western subjects were not ready for ‘Western’ freedoms.
An understanding of the physiological and metabolic demands of competition is essential for the development of training regimens that elicit adaptations appropriate for the sport being participated in. Despite the fact that dressage is a major sport and one of only three equestrian Olympic disciplines, to date there appear to be no studies that have described the heart rate of horses performing competitive dressage in any detail. The present study was therefore undertaken to describe the physiological demands of dressage competition. Thirty-five horses competing in a total of 50 dressage tests, 36 of which were at British dressage (BD) elementary level and 14 at BD medium level, were studied. The horses studied were predominantly Warmblood or Thoroughbred cross geldings with an age range from 6 to 17 (mean ± SD age of 10.0 ± 2.5 years). The average durations of warm-up for all horses competing were 31.3 ± 15.4 min at elementary level (n = 36) and 31.4 ± 10.0 min at medium level (n = 14; P>0.05). The mean and mean peak heart rates for horses warming up for elementary level were 91 ± 13 and 146 ± 35 bpm (beats min− 1), respectively, and were not different to that for horses warming up for medium level (mean 91 ± 10 bpm; peak: 144 ± 32 bpm; P>0.05). The mean and mean peak heart rates for all horses while competing at elementary level (n = 36) were 102 ± 13 and 132 ± 20 bpm, respectively, and 107 ± 8 and 132 ± 10 bpm, respectively, for medium level (n = 14), and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Mean heart rates during competition were significantly higher compared with that during warm-up for both elementary and medium levels (P < 0.001). Mean heart rate during competition (elementary and medium data combined) was significantly correlated with mean heart rate during warm-up (r2 = 0.503; n = 50; P < 0.001). There was no association between heart rate, warm-up duration and score or placing. These observations suggest that competitive dressage at BD elementary and medium levels is only moderately aerobically demanding.
Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis are standard tools in the nanotechnology world, but access to them by students is limited by high cost and lack of equipment. For this reason, among others, we have developed an on-demand remote access system to The University Spectroscopy and Imaging Facilities (USIF) of The University of Arizona (UA), by using Quartz PCI-Taipan. In general, Taipan is an online server based program that enables spectroscopy laboratories to store, organize, and manage data as well as users. Significantly, the Taipan system allows users, operators and researches to create their own online collaborations, which will, in many ways, fuse their research and outreach efforts. Therefore, we have incorporated the Taipan software to our recently installed Hitachi S-4800 FESEM and S-3400N variable-pressure SEM. With a high-speed internet connection, from any remote setting, the system allows students real-time access to view state-of-the-art microscopes, acquire data, and interact with the instrument operator. What is more, remote users can view up to six different screens including SEM image, SEM control screen, EDS, Raman spectrum, chamber scope, and microscope room as shown in Fig. 1. This offers a significant reduction of time, travel expenses, and more importantly, equipment cost.