To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Objectives: Promoting the adoption of clinical practice guidelines is a challenging task. Research shows that adopters' beliefs about guidelines and the process of their development are important predictors of guideline use. Our objective is to report on the development and refinement of an instrument designed to measure oncologists' assessments of guidelines in oncology.
Method: A theoretically derived instrument was drafted. Oncologists were asked to complete a questionnaire for each draft guideline they were asked to review. Factor analyses and multilevel modeling techniques were undertaken to explore the properties of the instrument and refine it.
Results: A total of 488 Ontario clinicians were sent 1,494 new questionnaires regarding 34 clinical practice guidelines produced between 1999 and 2002. A refined eighteen-item questionnaire with four stable factors that predicted 60 percent of the variance emerged. The factors are interpreted as guideline quality, applicability, acceptability, and comparative value. The four factors predicted oncologists' endorsements of draft guidelines and, with the exception of quality, predicted their intentions to use the guidelines. As expected, variation in the factor scores could be attributed more to the differences among the oncologist who completed the survey than to the differences among the guidelines themselves.
Conclusions:An instrument composed of four stable and theoretically relevant factors emerged. The findings support the hypothesis that beliefs about guideline attributes and development attributes relate to oncologists' endorsement of and intentions to use guidelines. Our next step is to link the responses of the survey with actual clinical behavior.