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Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
We present a calibration component for the Murchison Widefield Array All-Sky Virtual Observatory (MWA ASVO) utilising a newly developed PostgreSQL database of calibration solutions. Since its inauguration in 2013, the MWA has recorded over 34 petabytes of data archived at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre. According to the MWA Data Access policy, data become publicly available 18 months after collection. Therefore, most of the archival data are now available to the public. Access to public data was provided in 2017 via the MWA ASVO interface, which allowed researchers worldwide to download MWA uncalibrated data in standard radio astronomy data formats (CASA measurement sets or UV FITS files). The addition of the MWA ASVO calibration feature opens a new, powerful avenue for researchers without a detailed knowledge of the MWA telescope and data processing to download calibrated visibility data and create images using standard radio astronomy software packages. In order to populate the database with calibration solutions from the last 6 yr we developed fully automated pipelines. A near-real-time pipeline has been used to process new calibration observations as soon as they are collected and upload calibration solutions to the database, which enables monitoring of the interferometric performance of the telescope. Based on this database, we present an analysis of the stability of the MWA calibration solutions over long time intervals.
Recent investigations now suggest that cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may underpin part of the disease’s neurovascular component. However, our understanding of the relationship between the magnitude of CVR, the speed of cerebrovascular response, and the progression of AD is still limited. This is especially true in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is recognized as an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate AD and MCI patients by mapping repeatable and accurate measures of cerebrovascular function, namely the magnitude and speed of cerebrovascular response (τ) to a vasoactive stimulus in key predilection sites for vascular dysfunction in AD.
Thirty-three subjects (age range: 52–83 years, 20 males) were prospectively recruited. CVR and τ were assessed using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI during a standardized carbon dioxide stimulus. Temporal and parietal cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were generated from anatomical images using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite.
Of 33 subjects recruited, 3 individuals were excluded, leaving 30 subjects for analysis, consisting of 6 individuals with early AD, 11 individuals with MCI, and 13 older healthy controls (HCs). τ was found to be significantly higher in the AD group compared to the HC group in both the temporal (p = 0.03) and parietal cortex (p = 0.01) following a one-way ANCOVA correcting for age and microangiopathy scoring and a Bonferroni post-hoc correction.
The study findings suggest that AD is associated with a slowing of the cerebrovascular response in the temporal and parietal cortices.
External aortic compression (EAC) has long been used to control exsanguinating post-partum hemorrhage, but it has only recently been described in the prehospital trauma setting. This paper reports four cases where manual EAC was used during transport to manage life-threatening bleeding, twice from stab wounds, once from ruptured ectopic pregnancy, and once from severe lower-limb trauma. It showed that EAC has life-saving potential in the prehospital setting, but that safety and efficacy during transport requires the use of a hands-free compression device, such as an aortic tourniquet.
People with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are likely to be more susceptible to the mental health impact of COVID-19. This paper shares the perspectives of expert clinicians working with OCD considering how to identify OCD in the context of COVID-19, changes in the presentation, and importantly what to consider when undertaking cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for OCD in the current climate. The expert consensus is that although the presentation of OCD and treatment may have become more difficult, CBT should still continue remotely unless there are specific reasons for it not to, e.g. increase in risk, no access to computer, or exposure tasks or behavioural experiments cannot be undertaken. The authors highlight some of the considerations to take in CBT in light of our current understanding of COVID-19, including therapists and clients taking calculated risks when developing behavioural experiments and exposure tasks, considering viral loading and vulnerability factors. Special considerations for young people and perinatal women are discussed, as well as foreseeing what life may be like for those with OCD after the pandemic is over.
Key learning aims
(1) To learn how to identify OCD in the context of COVID-19 and consider the differences between following government guidelines and OCD.
(2) To consider the presentation of OCD in context of COVID-19, with regard to cognitive and behavioural processes.
(3) Review factors to be considered when embarking on CBT for OCD during the pandemic.
(4) Considerations in CBT for OCD, including weighing up costs and benefits of behavioural experiments or exposure tasks in light of our current understanding of the risks associated with COVID-19.
The Huanglongpu carbonatites are located in the north-western part of the Qinling orogenic belt in central China. Calcite carbonatite dykes at the Dashigou open pit are unusual due to their enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to light rare earth elements (LREE), leading to a flat REE pattern, and in that the majority of dykes have a quartz core. They also host economic concentrations of molybdenite. The calcite carbonatite dykes show two styles of mineralogy according to the degree of hydrothermal reworking, and these are reflected in REE distribution and concentration. The REE in the little-altered calcite carbonatite occur mostly in magmatic REE minerals, mainly monazite-(Ce), and typically have ΣLREE/(HREE+Y) ratios from 9.9 to 17. In hydrothermally altered calcite carbonatites, magmatic monazite-(Ce) is partially replaced to fully replaced by HREE-enriched secondary phases and the rocks have ΣLREE/(HREE+Y) ratios from 1.1 to 3.8. The fluid responsible for hydrothermal REE redistribution is preserved in fluid inclusions in the quartz lenses. The bulk of the quartz lacks fluid inclusions but is cut by two later hydrothermal quartz generations, both containing sulfate-rich fluid inclusions with sulfate typically present as multiple trapped solids, as well as in solution. The estimated total sulfate content of fluid inclusions ranges from 6 to >33 wt.% K2SO4 equivalent. We interpret these heterogeneous fluid inclusions to be the result of reaction of sulfate-rich fluids with the calcite carbonatite dykes. The final HREE enrichment is due to a combination of factors: (1) the progressive HREE enrichment of later magmatic calcite created a HREE-enriched source; (2) REE–SO42– complexing allowed the REE to be redistributed without fractionation; and (3) secondary REE mineralisation was dominated by minerals such as HREE-enriched fluorocarbonates, xenotime-(Y) and churchite-(Y) whose crystal structures tends to favour HREE.
The Cretaceous Okorusu carbonatite, Namibia, includes diopside-bearing and pegmatitic calcite carbonatites, both exhibiting hydrothermally altered mineral assemblages. In unaltered carbonatite, Sr, Ba and rare earth elements (REE) are hosted principally by calcite and fluorapatite. However, in hydrothermally altered carbonatites, small (<50 µm) parisite-(Ce) grains are the dominant REE host, while Ba and Sr are hosted in baryte, celestine, strontianite and witherite. Hydrothermal calcite has a much lower trace-element content than the original, magmatic calcite. Regardless of the low REE contents of the hydrothermal calcite, the REE patterns are similar to those of parisite-(Ce), magmatic minerals and mafic rocks associated with the carbonatites. These similarities suggest that hydrothermal alteration remobilised REE from magmatic minerals, predominantly calcite, without significant fractionation or addition from an external source. Barium and Sr released during alteration were mainly reprecipitated as sulfates. The breakdown of magmatic pyrite into iron hydroxide is inferred to be the main source of sulfate. The behaviour of sulfur suggests that the hydrothermal fluid was somewhat oxidising and it may have been part of a geothermal circulation system. Late hydrothermal massive fluorite replaced the calcite carbonatites at Okorusu and resulted in extensive chemical change, suggesting continued magmatic contributions to the fluid system.
A space X is said to be Lipschitz 1-connected if every Lipschitz loop 𝛾 : S1 → X bounds a O (Lip(𝛾))-Lipschitz disk f : D2 → X. A Lipschitz 1-connected space admits a quadratic isoperimetric inequality, but it is unknown whether the converse is true. Cornulier and Tessera showed that certain solvable Lie groups have quadratic isoperimetric inequalities, and we extend their result to show that these groups are Lipschitz 1-connected.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
The primary objectives of the ExoplANETS-A project are to: establish new knowledge on exoplanet atmospheres; establish new insight on influence of the host star on the planet atmosphere; disseminate knowledge, using online, web-based platforms. The project, funded under the EU’s Horizon-2020 programme, started in January 2018 and has a duration ∼3 years. We present an overview of the project, the activities concerning the host stars and some early results on the host stars.
Thousands of planets outside the Solar system have been discovered, with exoplanets in different environments. Since we cannot expect to find an exoplanetary system fully resembling our Solar System, we consider a Solar System type configuration where the Earth moves in an eccentric orbit. We focus on young Earth 1 billion years ago, when the Sun’s extreme UV (EUV) flux was about 5 times higher than the current radiation. In case of eccentric motion of Earth, strong variations of the EUV flux would influence the evolution of the planet’s atmosphere (EUV radiation of 50 times the current EUV flux would be possible). Taking into account a certain amount of Nitrogen in the atmosphere of such a young Earth, we study the non-thermal loss of N2 over a long time interval. We therefore investigate to what extent eccentric motion will influence the conditions of habitability of a terrestrial planet.
Using a novel method for speckle noise suppression from SPHERE-IFS data, we performed a systematic survey for disks in 22 Herbig Ae/Be stars, spatially resolving five disks and detecting seven new companion candidates. The fraction of sources with spatially resolved disks is systematically higher in the Meeus et al. (2001) group I sources, showing that disks are indeed more easily seen in scattered light in this sub-class of Herbig stars, consistent with the interpretation of group I sources having large gaps in their disks.
Objectives: Rates of cognitive, academic and behavioral comorbidities are elevated in children with epilepsy. The contribution of environmental and genetic influences to comorbidity risk is not fully understood. This study investigated children with epilepsy, their unaffected siblings, and controls to determine the presence and extent of risk associated with family relatedness across a range of epilepsy comorbidities. Methods: Participants were 346 children (8–18 years), n=180 with recent-onset epilepsy, their unaffected siblings (n=67), and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=99). Assessments included: (1) Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 (CBCL), (2) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), (3) history of education and academic services, and (4) lifetime attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Analyses consisted of linear mixed effect models for continuous variables, and logistic mixed models for binary variables. Results: Differences were detected between the three groups of children across all measures (p<.001). For ADHD, academic problems, and executive dysfunction, children with epilepsy exhibited significantly more problems than unaffected siblings and controls; siblings and controls did not differ statistically significantly from each other. For social competence, children with epilepsy and their unaffected siblings displayed more abnormality compared with controls, with no statistically significant difference between children with epilepsy and unaffected siblings. For behavioral problems, children with epilepsy had more abnormality than siblings and controls, but unaffected siblings also exhibited more abnormalities than controls. Conclusions: The contribution of epilepsy and family relatedness varies across specific neurobehavioral comorbidities. Family relatedness was not significantly associated with rates of ADHD, academic problems and executive dysfunction, but was associated with competence and behavioral problems. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1–9)
The suboptimal provision of analgesia to children in the emergency department (ED) is well-described. A yet unexplored barrier is caregiver or child refusal of analgesia. We sought to evaluate the frequency of caregiver/child acceptance of analgesia offered in the ED.
We conducted a two-centre cross-sectional study of 743 caregivers of children 4–17 years presenting to the pediatric ED with an acutely painful condition using a survey and medical record review. The primary outcome was the proportion of children/caregiver pairs who accepted analgesia in the ED.
The median (IQR) age of children was 11 (7) years, and 339/743 (45.6%) were female. The overall survey response rate was 73% (743/1018). In the 24 hours preceding ED arrival, the median (IQR) maximal pain score rated by children and caregivers was 8/10 (4) and 5/10 (2), respectively, and 30.4% (226/743) of caregivers offered analgesia. In the ED, children reported a median (IQR) pain score of 8/10 (2) and 54.9% (408/743) were offered analgesia. When offered in the ED, analgesia was accepted by 91% (373/408). Overall, 55.7% (414/743) of children received some form of analgesia.
Most caregivers/children accept analgesia when offered by ED personnel, suggesting refusal is not a major barrier to optimal management of children’s pain and highlighting the importance of ED personnel in encouraging adequate analgesia. A large proportion of children in pain are not offered analgesia by caregivers or ED personnel. Educational strategies for recognizing and treating pain should be directed at children, caregivers, and ED personnel.
Burn patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and an estimated half of all burn deaths are due to infections. This study explored risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in adult burn patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary-care burn center.
Adults (≥18 years old) admitted with burn injury for at least 2 days between 2004 and 2013.
HAIs were determined in real-time by infection preventionists using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each risk factor on time to HAI, with inverse probability of censor weights to address potentially informative censoring. Effect measure modification by burn size was also assessed.
Overall, 4,426 patients met inclusion criteria, and 349 (7.9%) patients had at least 1 HAI within 60 days of admission. Compared to <5% total body surface area (TBSA), patients with 5%–10% TBSA were almost 3 times as likely to acquire an HAI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.92; 95% CI, 1.63–5.23); patients with 10%–20% TBSA were >6 times as likely to acquire an HAI (HR, 6.38; 95% CI, 3.64–11.17); and patients with >20% TBSA were >10 times as likely to acquire an HAI (HR, 10.33; 95% CI, 5.74–18.60). Patients with inhalational injury were 1.5 times as likely to acquire an HAI (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.17–2.22). The effect of inhalational injury (P=.09) appeared to be larger among patients with ≤20% TBSA.
Larger burns and inhalational injury were associated with increased incidence of HAIs. Future research should use these risk factors to identify potential interventions.
This article reviews the major paradigm shifts that have occurred in the area of the application of clinical and experimental neuropsychology to epilepsy and epilepsy surgery since the founding of the International Neuropsychological Society. The five paradigm shifts discussed include: 1) The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in epilepsy – expanding the landscape of syndrome-specific neuropsychological impairment; 2) pathways to comorbidities: bidirectional relationships and their clinical implications; 3) discovering quality of life: The concept, its quantification and applicability; 4) outcomes of epilepsy surgery: challenging conventional wisdom; and 5) Iatrogenic effects of treatment: cognitive and behavioral effects of antiepilepsy drugs. For each area we characterize the status of knowledge, the key developments that have occurred, and how they have altered our understanding of the epilepsies and their management. We conclude with a brief overview of where we believe the field will be headed in the next decade which includes changes in assessment paradigms, moving from characterization of comorbidities to interventions; increasing development of new measures, terminology and classification; increasing interest in neurodegenerative proteins; transitioning from clinical seizure features to modifiable risk factors; and neurobehavioral phenotypes. Overall, enormous progress has been made over the lifespan of the INS with promise of ongoing improvements in understanding of the cognitive and behavioral complications of the epilepsies and their treatment. (JINS, 2017, 23, 791–805)