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Predictive associations were estimated between socioemotional dispositions measured at 10–17 years using the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) and future individual differences in white matter microstructure measured at 22–31 years of age. Participants were 410 twins (48.3% monozygotic) selected for later neuroimaging by oversampling on risk for psychopathology from a representative sample of child and adolescent twins. Controlling for demographic covariates and total intracranial volume (TICV), each CADS disposition (negative emotionality, prosociality, and daring) rated by one of the informants (parent or youth) significantly predicted global fractional anisotropy (FA) averaged across the major white matter tracts in brain in adulthood, but did so through significant interactions with sex after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. In females, each 1 SD difference in greater parent-rated prosociality was associated with 0.43 SD greater FA (p < 0.0008). In males, each 1 SD difference in greater parent-rated daring was associated with 0.24 SD lower FA (p < 0.0008), and each 1 SD difference in greater youth-rated negative emotionality was associated with 0.18 SD greater average FA (p < 0.0040). These findings suggest that CADS dispositions are associated with FA, but associations differ by sex. Exploratory analyses suggest that FA may mediate the associations between dispositions and psychopathology in some cases. These associations over 12 years could reflect enduring brain–behavior associations in spite of transactions with the environment, but could equally reflect processes in which dispositional differences in behavior influence the development of white matter. Future longitudinal studies are needed to resolve the causal nature of these sex-moderated associations.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Climate variability can complicate efforts to interpret any long-term glacier mass-balance trends due to anthropogenic warming. Here we examine the impact of climate variability on the seasonal mass-balance records of 14 glaciers throughout Norway, Sweden and Svalbard using dynamical adjustment, a statistical method that removes orthogonal patterns of variability shared between each mass-balance record and sea-level pressure or sea-surface temperature predictor fields. For each glacier, the two leading predictor patterns explain 27–81% of the winter mass-balance variability and 24–69% of the summer mass-balance variability. The spatial and temporal structure of these patterns indicates that accumulation variability for all of the glaciers is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) also modulating accumulation variability for the northernmost glaciers. Given this result, predicting glacier change in the region may depend on NAO and AMO predictability. In the raw mass-balance records, the glaciers throughout southern Norway have significantly negative summer trends, whereas the glaciers located closer to the Arctic have negative winter trends. Removing the effects of climate variability suggests it can bias trends in mass-balance records that span a few decades, but its effects on most of the longer-term mass-balance trends are minimal.
To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults.
Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18–64 years old and had BMI 30·0–50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes.
Tucson, AZ, USA.
Fifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female.
Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown −1·7 (−14·2, 10·9), −3·9 (−17·2, 9·4) and −13·2 (−30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) −2·3 (−5·3, 0·7; ML), −1·0 (−4·2, 2·2; GT), −3·9 (−8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (−11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (−11·4, 12·4; GT), −9·8 (−25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated.
Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.
The Pueblo population of Chaco Canyon during the Bonito Phase (AD 800–1130) employed agricultural strategies and water-management systems to enhance food cultivation in this unpredictable environment. Scepticism concerning the timing and effectiveness of this system, however, remains common. Using optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments and LiDAR imaging, the authors located Bonito Phase canal features at the far west end of the canyon. Additional ED-XRF and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses confirm the diversion of waters from multiple sources during Chaco’s occupation. The extent of this water-management system raises new questions about social organisation and the role of ritual in facilitating responses to environmental unpredictability.
Objectives: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. Methods: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner’s CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo. To evaluate potential effects on learning, impulsivity, and perseveration, participants were additionally tested on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Results: Participants receiving placebo exhibited the classic vigilance decrement, demonstrated by a significant reduction in attention (D’) across the task. This vigilance decrement was not observed, however, after either dose of amphetamine. Consistent with enhanced vigilance, the 20-mg dose also reduced reaction time variability across the task and the ADHD confidence index. The effects of amphetamine appeared to be selective to vigilance since no effects were observed on the IGT, WCST, or response inhibition/perseveration measures from the CPT. Conclusions: The present data support the premise that amphetamine improves vigilance irrespective of disease state. Given that amphetamine is a norepinephrine/dopamine transporter inhibitor and releaser, these effects are informative regarding the neurobiological substrates of attentional control. (JINS, 2018, 24, 283–293)
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
We are all members of the National Social Inclusion Programme's Reference Group and here we reflect on our experiences of carers or of being a carer for people with severe and enduring mental health problems. David and Rosemary have family members with mental health problems and Rosemary also uses mental health services herself; Michael works as a volunteer with carers and Susan is a carer of her elderly mother; they both also have experience of mental health services. Our experiences are both similar and distinct and reflect the differences between carer and service user viewpoints. For people who act as carers, particularly those who have family members with mental health problems, there is more than one individual who experiences exclusion and the journey of recovery. The four perspectives here reflect this and illustrate the potential tensions that engagement with services and the desire for different outcomes and choices can engender. Admittedly, many of the causes and solutions to exclusion involve political and social changes, but we will be concentrating on how mental health professionals and services can help in facilitating inclusion or how they may hinder the process of recovery.
David: Caring for a spouse
I have been a carer to my spouse who suffers from bipolar disorder for the past 15 years. She has not had an in-patient episode for over 7 years and we both have learnt to manage the condition and our lives. As our situation became more stable and we began to enjoy more of a ‘normal’ life again, I began to realise that our recovery was intimately linked to increasing experiences of social inclusion, and that much of our distress was exacerbated, even caused, by our experience of exclusion. This exclusion was experienced in many ways and for me was a reflection of my personal needs and altered personal relationships, my experiences of employment and financial difficulties, the increasing isolation from people and social contacts, my experience of health services and my need for information on matters about which I was previously ignorant.
Thinking back to my wife's first admission, it strikes me how alone and vulnerable I was. To be fair, there were people around, so I was not technically alone, but I was very lonely.
The mitigation hierarchy is a decision-making framework designed to address impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services through first seeking to avoid impacts wherever possible, then minimizing or restoring impacts, and finally by offsetting any unavoidable impacts. Avoiding impacts is seen by many as the most certain and effective way of managing harm to biodiversity, and its position as the first stage of the mitigation hierarchy indicates that it should be prioritized ahead of other stages. However, despite an abundance of legislative and voluntary requirements, there is often a failure to avoid impacts. We discuss reasons for this failure and outline some possible solutions. We highlight the key roles that can be played by conservation organizations in cultivating political will, holding decision makers accountable to the law, improving the processes of impact assessment and avoidance, building capacity, and providing technical knowledge. A renewed focus on impact avoidance as the foundation of the mitigation hierarchy could help to limit the impacts on biodiversity of large-scale developments in energy, infrastructure, agriculture and other sectors.
To evaluate the impact of no-touch terminal room no-touch disinfection using ultraviolet wavelength C germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on C. difficile infection (CDI) rates on inpatient units with persistently high rates of CDI despite infection control measures.
Interrupted time-series analysis with a comparison arm.
3 adult hematology-oncology units in a large, tertiary-care hospital.
We conducted a 12-month prospective valuation of UVGI. Rooms of patients with CDI or on contact precautions were targeted for UVGI upon discharge using an electronic patient flow system. Incidence rates of healthcare-onset CDI were compared for the baseline period (January 2013–December 2013) and intervention period (February 2014–January 2015) on study units and non–study units using a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with random effects for unit and time in months.
During a 52-week intervention period, UVGI was deployed for 542 of 2,569 of all patient discharges (21.1%) on the 3 study units. The CDI rate declined 25% on study units and increased 16% on non-study units during the intervention compared to the baseline period. We detected a significant association between UVGI and decrease in CDI incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26–0.94; P=.03) on the study units but not on the non-study units. The impact of UVGI use on average room-cleaning time and turnaround time was negligible compared to the baseline period.
Targeted deployment of UVGI to rooms of high-risk patients at discharge resulted in a substantial reduction of CDI incidence without adversely impacting room turnaround.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have recommended faecal calprotectin (FC) testing as an option in adults with lower gastrointestinal symptoms for whom specialist investigations are being considered, if cancer is not suspected and it is used to support a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome. York Hospital and Vale of York Clinical Commissioning Group have developed an evidence-based care pathway to support this recommendation for use in primary care. It incorporates a higher FC cut-off value, a ‘traffic light’ system for risk and a clinical management pathway.
To evaluate this care pathway.
The care pathway was introduced into five primary care practices for a period of six months and the clinical outcomes of patients were evaluated. Negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) were calculated. GP feedback of the care pathway was obtained by means of a web-based survey. Comparator gastroenterology activity in a neighbouring trust was obtained.
The care pathway for FC in primary care had a 97% NPV and a 40% PPV. This was better than GP clinical judgement alone and doubled the PPV compared with the standard FC cut-off (<50 mcg/g), without affecting the NPV. In total, 89% of patients with IBD had an FC>250 mcg/g and were diagnosed by ‘straight to test’ colonoscopy within three weeks. The care pathway was considered helpful by GPs and delivered a higher diagnostic yield after secondary care referral (21%) than the conventional comparator pathway (5%).
A care pathway for the use of FC that incorporates a higher cut-off value, a ‘traffic light’ system for risk and supports clinical decision making can be achieved safely and effectively. It maintains the balance between a high NPV and an acceptable PPV. A modified care pathway for the use of FC in primary care is proposed.
This study investigated pain coping profiles using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire-24 (CSQ-24) in a sample of 171 workers’ compensation clients with chronic musculoskeletal pain from Canada. Cluster analysis identified three distinct coping profiles: mixed coping, catastrophising, and positive coping. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the positive coping group had lower levels of activity interference and depression as well as higher levels of quality of life than the mixed coping and catastrophising groups. Study findings indicate clients with chronic musculoskeletal pain can be categorised according to pain coping strategies, and pain coping strategies used are related to rehabilitation outcomes. The implications of these pain coping profiles for rehabilitation counselling practice are discussed.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Targeted surveillance has focused on device-associated infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) and is often limited to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in high-risk areas. Longitudinal trends in all HAIs, including other types of HAIs, and HAIs outside of intensive care units (ICUs) remain unclear. We examined the incidences of all HAIs using comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance over a 12-year period (2001–2012).
This retrospective observational study was conducted at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. All HAIs, including 5 major infections with 14 specific infection sites as defined using CDC criteria, were ascertained through comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance. Generalized linear models were used to examine the incidence rate difference by infection type over time.
A total of 16,579 HAIs included 6,397 cases in ICUs and 10,182 cases outside ICUs. The incidence of overall HAIs decreased significantly hospital-wide (−3.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), in ICUs (−8.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), and in non-ICU settings (−1.9 infections per 1,000 patient days). The incidences of bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia in hospital-wide settings decreased significantly, but the incidences of SSI and lower respiratory tract infection remained unchanged. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increased remarkably. The outcomes were estimated to include 700 overall HAIs prevented, 40 lives saved, and cost savings in excess of $10 million.
We demonstrated success in reducing overall HAIs over a 12-year period. Our data underscore the necessity for surveillance and infection prevention interventions outside of the ICUs, for non–device-associated HAIs, and for CDI.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1139–1147