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Science and technology generated by Universities has many challenges in reaching commercial product applications, as has been explored in a range of literature. Product design has been identified to add value through various types of contributions in addressing these challenges; however, there remains a gap in literature to explore how and when product development activities can practically be applied to technology development.
This paper furthers the idea that the product development process can help bridge the gap between the laboratory and commercial applications by proposing a framework for how Ulrich and Eppinger's product development process can integrate with the STAM technology development model. This is a significant step towards understanding how in practice these disciplines can work together to bring science and technology from the laboratory to products in the marketplace.
Catalytic processes are critical steps in numerous industrial processes. The discovery of high reactivity of defects in metal-free two-dimensional materials has bolstered their emergence as catalysts. Here we consider the effect of defect-inducing methods in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on their performance for olefin and CO2 hydrogenation. We compare the changes introduced by ball milling and heat treatment in h-BN and show how varying the treatment conditions can impact the properties. We provide some evidence of the reactivity of the powders. Our results highlight how characterization can be exploited to assess the potential catalytic activity of h-BN for heterogeneous catalysis.
Children reared in impoverished environments are at risk for enduring psychological and physical health problems. Mechanisms by which poverty affects development, however, remain unclear. To explore one potential mechanism of poverty's impact on social–emotional and cognitive development, an experimental examination of a rodent model of scarcity-adversity was conducted and compared to results from a longitudinal study of human infants and families followed from birth (N = 1,292) who faced high levels of poverty-related scarcity-adversity. Cross-species results supported the hypothesis that altered caregiving is one pathway by which poverty adversely impacts development. Rodent mothers assigned to the scarcity-adversity condition exhibited decreased sensitive parenting and increased negative parenting relative to mothers assigned to the control condition. Furthermore, scarcity-adversity reared pups exhibited decreased developmental competence as indicated by disrupted nipple attachment, distress vocalization when in physical contact with an anesthetized mother, and reduced preference for maternal odor with corresponding changes in brain activation. Human results indicated that scarcity-adversity was inversely correlated with sensitive parenting and positively correlated with negative parenting, and that parenting fully mediated the association of poverty-related risk with infant indicators of developmental competence. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the usefulness of bidirectional–translational research to inform interventions for at-risk families.
Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators.
A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver.
An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.
Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.
An enormous effort is underway worldwide to attempt to detect gravitational waves. If successful, this will open a new frontier in astronomy. An essential portion of this effort is being carried out in Australia by the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA), with research teams working at the Australia National University, University of Western Australia, and University of Adelaide involving scientists and students representing many more institutions and nations. ACIGA is developing ultrastable high-power continuous-wave lasers for the next generation interferometric gravity wave detectors; researching the problems associated with high optical power in resonant cavities; opening frontiers in advanced interferometry configurations, quantum optics, and signal extraction; and is the world's leader in high-performance vibration isolation and suspension design. ACIGA has also been active in theoretical research and modelling of potential astronomical gravitational wave sources, and in developing data analysis detection algorithms. ACIGA has opened a research facility north of Perth, Western Australia, which will be the culmination of these efforts. This paper briefly reviews ACIGA's research activities and the prospects for gravitational wave astronomy in the southern hemisphere.
Shark teeth are commonly found in mortuary and ritual contexts throughout the Northeast. On the Maritime Peninsula, shark teeth have been identified in mortuary assemblages spanning the Late Archaic through to the Late Woodland periods (ca. 5000 B.P. to 950 B.P.). Beyond the Maritime Peninsula, shark teeth have been recovered from Woodland period contexts ranging from Chesapeake Bay to the Ohio River. Amerindian perspectivism, or cosmológical deixis, provides a framework for understanding the relationship between humans and animals in hunter-gatherer societies. To explore this relationship, we examine engagements between sharks and humans over a period of 5,000 years, within a socioeconomic perspective. We postulate that shark teeth in mortuary contexts were complex, entangled objects that were both mnemonics and instruments. All at the same time, shark teeth were (1) an emblem of a real creature with spectacular predatory abilities, (2) an icon of transformational and spiritual power, (3) a symbol of a society’s maritime way of life, and (4) a tool–a conduit through which a person could gain access to supernatural abilities. When shark teeth were exchanged, all of these properties may have been transferred, suggesting that reinforcing relationships between societies conducting the exchange was as important as gaining access to the supernatural powers of the teeth.
The name Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) is commonly applied to members of a species complex that includes the well-known Asian lung fluke of medical and veterinary importance. Unambiguous molecular and morphological evidence showing the presence of a member of the complex in India has recently been published. In the present study we report the occurrence of 2 more members of the P. westermani complex in northeastern (NE) India. Surveys of the freshwater crabs Maydelliatelphusa lugubris in NE India revealed 2 morphologically distinct types of lung fluke metacercariae. Phylogenetic analyses, using DNA sequences from ITS2, 28S and cox1 gene regions indicate that these lung metacercariae belong to P. westermani complex. Type 1 metacercariae have a more basal position within the complex whereas type 2 metacercariae are closely related to the relatively derived forms of P. westermani from NE Asia (Japan, Korea, China) and Vietnam. A third type of metacercaria (type 3), detected in another crab host, Sartoriana spinigera in Assam, was phylogenetically close to P. siamensis, also a member of the P. westermani group. Molecular evidence has demonstrated the existence of 3 genotypes of lung flukes within the Paragonimus westermani complex in NE India. Two of these were previously unknown.
Little information exists regarding how accurately emergency physicians (EPs) predict the probability of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our objective was to determine if EPs can accurately predict ACS in a prospectively identified cohort of emergency department (ED) patients who met enrolment criteria for a study of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) and were admitted for a “rule out ACS” protocol.
A prospective observational pilot study in an academic medical centre was carried out. EPs caring for patients with chest pain provided whole-number estimates of the probability of ACS after clinical review. This substudy was part of the now published Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) study, a study of CCTA and admission of patients for a rule out ACS protocol after a nondiagnostic evaluation. Predictions were grouped into probability groups based on the validated Goldman criteria. ACS was determined by an adjudication committee using American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
A total of 334 predictions were obtained for a study population with a mean age of 54 (SD 12) years, 63% of whom were male. There were 35 ACS events. EPs predicted ACS better than by chance, and increasingly higher estimates were associated with a higher incidence of ACS (p = 0.0004). The percentage of patients with ACS was 0%, 6%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, for very low, low, intermediate, and high probability groups. EPs' estimates had a sensitivity of 63% using a > 20% probability of ACS to define a positive test. Lowering this threshold to > 7% to define a test as positive increased the sensitivity of physician estimates to 89% but lowered specificity from 65% to 24%
Our data suggest that for a selected ED cohort meeting eligibility criteria for a study of CCTA, EPs predict ACS better than by chance, with an increasing proportion of patients proving to have ACS with increasing probability estimates. Lowering the estimate threshold does not result in an overall sensitivity level that is sufficient to send patients home from the ED and is associated with a poor specificity.
ReB2 was recently reported to exhibit high hardness and low compressibility, which both are strong functions of its stoichiometry, namely Re to B ratio. Most of the techniques used for ReB2 synthesis reported 1:2.5 Re to B ratio because of the loss of the B during high temperature synthesis. However, as a result of B excess, the amorphous boron, located along the grain boundaries of polycrystalline ReB2, would degrade the ReB2 properties. Therefore, techniques which could allow synthesizing the stoichiometric ReB2 preferably at room temperature are in high demand. Here, we report synthesis of ReB2 powders using mechanochemical route by milling elemental crystalline Re and amorphous B powders in the SPEX 8000 high-energy ball mill for 80 h. The formation of boron and perrhenic acids are also reported after ReB2 powder was exposed to the moist air environment for a 12-month period of time.
Background: Proficient delivery of motivational interviewing (MI) is often determined by global rating of relational elements or cumulative tallies of technical elements. Yet limited empirical evidence exists to clarify how relational and technical elements are associated, or if rates of skill indices and their constituent technical elements vary within a clinical encounter. Aims: This study sought to document temporal variance in rates of MI skill indices and their constituent technical elements during brief clinical encounters with a standardized patient wherein delivery was “MI-proficient”, and to distinguish those temporal patterns from those observed in encounters with “MI-inconsistent” delivery. Method: Data were accessed from a large MI training trial wherein relational and technical elements of MI delivery were scored for 503 recordings of a simulated 20-minute clinical encounter. Notably, independent raters tallied technical elements in 5-minute segments, allowing evaluation of potential variance among the encounter's quartile intervals. Global ratings of MI spirit identified subsets of recordings with MI-proficient (n = 49) and MI-inconsistent (n = 43) delivery for stratified analyses. Results: Analyses contrast temporal trajectories of technical aspects of MI-proficient and MI-inconsistent delivery, with the former characterized by: 1) elicitation and reflective listening as primary opening strategies; 2) increased depth of reflective listening as a predominant strategy in subsequent, focused therapeutic discussion; and 3) increased use of elicitation and information provision in change planning as the encounter approached conclusion. Conclusions: Findings are generally consistent with seminal descriptions of MI (Miller and Rollnick, 1991, 2002), and document temporal aspects of skilful MI delivery in brief encounters.
Biomimetic applications play an important role in informing the field of robotics. One aspect is navigation – a skill automobile robots require to perform useful tasks. A sub-area of this is search strategies, e.g. for search and rescue, demining, exploring surfaces of other planets or as a default strategy when other navigation mechanisms fail. Despite that, only a few approaches have been made to transfer biological knowledge of search mechanisms on surfaces along the ground into biomimetic applications. To provide insight for robot navigation strategies, this study describes the paths a crayfish used to explore terrain. We tracked movement when different sets of sensory input were available. We then tested this algorithm with a computer model crayfish and concluded that the movement of C. destructor has a specialised walking strategy that could provide a suitable baseline algorithm for autonomous mobile robots during navigation.
To determine whether methodological differences explain divergent results in case-control studies examining surgery as a risk factor for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
After case-control studies were systematically identified using PubMed, we performed a homogeneity analysis and applied models to effect sizes (odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) using 2 parameters: type of control subject used and consistency of data ascertainment. The hospitals and communities were located in Europe, Japan, and Australia. Patients were CJD case subjects and age- and sex-matched control subjects in the hospital or community. Because of the natural history of the disease, CJD subjects are not considered reliable sources of information for these studies. Therefore, individuals who are considered close to the subjects and who have knowledge of their medical history, including spouses and relatives, are necessarily identified as proxy informants for the surgical record of the case subjects.
Overall, the effect sizes lacked homogeneity (P<.0001). Three studies that used control subjects from the community revealed a significantly elevated risk of CJD for patients who underwent surgery (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41-2.35 [P<.0001 ]), whereas 3 investigations that used control subjects from the hospital revealed a significantly reduced risk (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.90 [P = .0069]). Two studies that used proxy informants to acquire information about case subjects and control subjects (consistent ascertainment) found that the risk of CJD was significantly lower in those subjects who underwent surgery (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.87 [P = .0043]). Conversely, 4 studies in which proxy informants acted only on behalf of case subjects (inconsistent data ascertainment) found a significant positive association between surgery and CJD (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.32-2.12 [P<.0001 ]). Both models fit the data very well, leaving no remaining variance in effect sizes to explain.
Variation in the type of control subjects used and in exposure assessment in case-control studies may partially explain conflicting data regarding the association between surgery and CJD. However, there was almost complete confounding of these 2 parameters, making interpretation more difficult. Planning of future investigations must carefully consider these design elements.
Recently I. Castro and F.Urbano introduced the Lagrangian catenoid. Topologically, it is
and its induced metric is conformally flat, but not cylindrical. Their result is that if a Lagrangian minimal submanifold in
is foliated by round
$\left( n-1 \right)$
-spheres, it is congruent to a Lagrangian catenoid. Here we study the question of conformally flat, minimal, Lagrangian submanifolds in
. The general problem is formidable, but we first show that such a submanifold resembles a Lagrangian catenoid in that its Schouten tensor has an eigenvalue of multiplicity one. Then, restricting to the case of at most two eigenvalues, we show that the submanifold is either flat and totally geodesic or is homothetic to (a piece of) the Lagrangian catenoid.