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In The Poetry of Disturbance, David Bergman argues that post-war poetry underwent a significant if subtle shift in emphasis, moving from the modernist concern with the poem as a visual text to one that was chiefly oral in nature. The resulting change was disturbing, especially for those brought up on the principles of high modernism. This new stress on orality implied a shift in the economy of the poem, away from the austerity of language advocated by Pound and Eliot to a style that conveyed freedom, expansiveness, and an innovative directness.
This chapter combines black sexual minorities to the history of African American and African diasporic writing. The longing between men that presumably structures much within modern art and culture is not mediated by a female cipher. Instead, as Huey Newton suggests himself, the extreme pressure that attends African and African American subjectivity tends to obviate the need to deny the key role that the queer subject must necessarily play in the production and reproduction of culture. Following the lead of lesbian writers, black gay men began in the 1980s to produce small literary magazines that provided room for emerging artists to experiment and develop their craft. Most important of all was the anthology Brother to Brother: New Writings by Black Gay Men. This ambitious work had a number of key accomplishments. The anthology helped to articulate a long tradition of black gay writing that extended from the Harlem Renaissance to the tail end of the twentieth century.
John Crowe Ransom, John Orley Allen Tate and Robert Penn Warren laid the foundations for twentieth-century southern poetry at Vanderbilt University in the twenties. This chapter considers how lack of academic opportunities helped determine southern poetry's history. The poem Bells for John Whiteside's Daughterformer concerns a traumatic event, the death and funeral of an energetic young girl and consists of five quatrains that develop according to the three-stage progression of the elegy, moving from lament to praise to consolation. Ransom's student Tate of Winchester, Kentucky, hared his teacher's skepticism of a materially oriented culture and also portrayed science as the imagination's bête noire, where Ransom relied on traditional forms, realistic settings and irony. In the 1960s and 1970s the issue of race continued to tug at Warren and other southern poets, particularly Tate, who was embarrassed by the publication of a letter he wrote to editor Lincoln Kirstein in 1933.
The High Plateaus of Utah include seven separate mountain ranges that supported glaciers during the Pleistocene. The Fish Lake Plateau, located on the eastern edge of the High Plateaus, preserves evidence of at least two glacial advances. Four cosmogenic 3He exposure ages of boulders in an older moraine range from 79 to 159 ka with a mean age of 129 ± 39 ka and oldest ages of 152 ± 3 and 159 ± 5 ka. These ages suggest deposition during the type Bull Lake glaciation and Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Twenty boulder exposure ages from four different younger moraines indicate a local last glacial maximum (LGM) of ~ 21.1 ka, coincident with the type Pinedale glaciation and MIS 2. Reconstructed Pinedale-age glaciers from the Fish Lake Plateau have equilibrium-line altitudes ranging from 2950 to 3190 m. LGM summer temperature depressions for the Fish Lake Plateau range from −10.7 to −8.2°C, assuming no change in precipitation. Comparison of the Fish Lake summer temperature depressions to a regional dataset suggests that the Fish Lake Plateau may have had a slight increase (~ 1.5× modern) in precipitation during the LGM. A series of submerged ridges in Fish Lake were identified during a bathymetric survey and are likely Bull Lake age moraines.