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High-resolution Chirp sub-bottom data were obtained offshore from the Northern Channel Islands (NCI), California, to image submerged paleoshorelines and assess local uplift rates. Although modern bathymetry is often used for modeling paleoshorelines, Chirp data image paleoshorelines buried beneath sediment that obscures their seafloor expression. The NCI were a unified landmass during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ~20 ka), when eustatic sea level was ~120 m lower than present. We identified seven paleoshorelines, ranging from ~28 to 104 m in depth, across this now-submerged LGM platform. Paleoshoreline depths were compared to local sea-level curves to estimate ages, which suggest that some were reoccupied over multiple sea-level cycles. Additionally, previous studies determined conflicting uplift rates for the NCI, ranging from 0.16 to 1.5 m/ka. Our results suggest that a rate on the lower end of this range better fits the observed submerged paleoshorelines. Using the uplift rate of ~0.16 m/ka, we estimate that paleoshorelines formed during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3, the LGM, and the Younger Dryas stade are preserved on the NCI platform. These results help clarify uplift rates for the NCI and illustrate the importance of sub-bottom data for mapping submerged paleoshorelines.
The present study aimed to identify whether discretionary food consumption declined in an intervention focused primarily on promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. We also aimed to identify potential mediators explaining intervention effects on discretionary food consumption.
Secondary analysis of data from the ShopSmart study, a randomised controlled trial involving a 6-month intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Linear regression models examined intervention effects on discretionary food consumption at intervention completion (T2). A half-longitudinal mediator analyses was performed to examine the potential mediating effect of personal and environmental factors on the association between the intervention effects and discretionary food consumption. Indirect (mediated) effects were tested by the product of coefficients method with bootstrapped se using Andrew Hayes’ PROCESS macro for SPSS.
Women were recruited via the Coles FlyBuys loyalty card database in socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs of Melbourne, Australia.
Analyses included 225 women (116 intervention and 109 control).
Compared with controls, intervention participants consumed fewer discretionary foods at T2, after adjusting for key confounders (B = −0·194, 95 % CI −0·378, −0·010 servings/d; P = 0·039). While some mediators were associated with the outcome (taste, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, time constraints), there was no evidence that they mediated intervention effects.
The study demonstrated that a behavioural intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged participants was effective in reducing discretionary food intake. Although specific mediators were not identified, researchers should continue searching for mechanisms by which interventions have an effect to guide future programme design.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
The present qualitative study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of participants’ attitudes, knowledge, perceived effectiveness (a person’s belief that his/her behaviour can contribute to environmental preservation) and behaviours relating to a sustainable eating pattern.
One-to-one interviews (either face-to-face or by telephone) were conducted following a structured interview schedule, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis in NVivo 10.
Victorian (Australia) adult participants recruited via online advertisements, flyers on community advertisement boards and letterbox drops.
Twenty-four participants (mean age 40 years, range 19–69 years; thirteen female, eleven male) were interviewed.
Participants reported that environmental impact was not an important influence on their food choice. Participants displayed limited knowledge about a sustainable eating pattern, with most unaware of the environmental impact of food-related behaviours. Most participants believed sustainable eating would be only slightly beneficial to the environment. Participants reported undertaking limited sustainable food behaviours currently and were more willing to undertake a food behaviour if they perceived additional benefits, such as promoting health or supporting the local community.
The study suggests consumers need further information about a sustainable eating pattern and the environmental impact of food choice. The findings highlight some of the barriers that will need to be addressed when promoting this kind of eating pattern and that a range of interventions will be necessary.
To evaluate a central line care maintenance bundle to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in non–intensive care unit settings.
Before-after trial with 12-month follow-up period.
A 1,250-bed teaching hospital.
Patients with central lines on 8 general medicine wards. Four wards received the intervention and 4 served as controls.
A multifaceted catheter care maintenance bundle consisting of educational programs for nurses, update of hospital policies, visual aids, a competency assessment, process monitoring, regular progress reports, and consolidation of supplies necessary for catheter maintenance.
Data were collected for 25,542 catheter-days including 43 CLABSI (rate, 1.68 per 1,000 catheter-days) and 4,012 catheter dressing observations. Following the intervention, a 2.5% monthly decrease in the CLABSI incidence density was observed on intervention floors but this was not statistically significant (95% CI, −5.3% to 0.4%). On control floors, there was a smaller but marginally significant decrease in CLABSI incidence during the study (change in monthly rate, −1.1%; 95% CI, −2.1% to −0.1%). Implementation of the bundle was associated with improvement in catheter dressing compliance on intervention wards (78.8% compliance before intervention vs 87.9% during intervention/follow-up; P<.001) but improvement was also observed on control wards (84.9% compliance before intervention vs 90.9% during intervention/follow-up; P=.001).
A multifaceted program to improve catheter care was associated with improvement in catheter dressing care but no change in CLABSI rates. Additional study is needed to determine strategies to prevent CLABSI in non–intensive care unit patients.
Background: There is little data to inform the treatment of severe obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in an inpatient or residential setting. Aims: This paper aimed to: a) describe treatment outcomes at a residential unit over 11 years; b) investigate whether treatment was successful for a subset of severe treatment refractory residents; c) compare an intensive treatment programme to a “standard” treatment programme; and d) find predictors of self or early discharge from the unit. Method: We compared treatment outcomes for (i) a minimum 12-week treatment (hereafter “standard”) programme versus a 2-week intensive programme and (ii) for severe treatment refractory cases on the standard programme. We identified 472 residents with OCD admitted to the Anxiety Disorders Residential Unit at the Bethlem Royal Hospital between 2001 and 2012. Outcomes were measured with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) obtained throughout treatment and up to one year after discharge. Results: Although residents had very severe OCD on admission, sequential assessment with the Y-BOCS, OCI, BAI and BDI demonstrated that scores on all outcome measures significantly decreased from pre to posttreatment and were generally maintained at follow-up. There was no significant difference between those on the standard or the 2-week intensive programme. Sixty-nine per cent of residents with OCD made significant improvements, with at least a 25% reduction on the Y-BOCS. There were predictors of self or early discharge but none for outcome on the Y-BOCS. Conclusions: The data support the principle of stepped care for severe OCD.
Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents’ frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents’ frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects.
Online surveys completed at baseline (2004–2005) and follow-up (2006–2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences.
Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia.
Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12–15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33 %).
While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents.
Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents’ dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g. selected intrapersonal factors among all adolescents and social factors (e.g. mealtime rules) among advantaged adolescents.
To evaluate the efficacy of a Belly Board immobilisation device for rectal cancer patients.
Materials and methods
A randomised trial in patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma was established. Patients were treated, prone with control arm, according to standard departmental protocol and experimental arm with the use of a Belly Board. All treatments were planned using a three-field technique. The primary endpoints were reproducibility and irradiated small bowel volume. Questionnaires were used to assess secondary endpoints of patient comfort, ease of set-up and acute toxicities.
Pre-planned interim analysis was performed after recruiting 30 patients. In all, 348 portal images were analysed retrospectively. Around 8 out of 12 parameters measuring set-up reproducibility were in favour of the Belly Board arm. Random error in the anterior–posterior direction was improved and statistically significant in the experimental arm (95% CI; p≤0·05). Small bowel V15 was significantly lower in the Belly Board position (mean V15=14·5%) compared with the standard position (mean V15=21·4%), paired t-test 95% CI; p=0·035. Also, patients’ comfort satisfaction was greater in the Belly Board arm.
Set-up reproducibility, small bowel V15, patient comfort and satisfaction were all significantly improved by the use of the Belly Board.
Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007–8 (T1) and 2010–11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5–12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0·035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups.
We consider a stochastic SIR (susceptible → infective → removed) epidemic on a random graph with specified degree distribution, constructed using the configuration model, and investigate the ‘acquaintance vaccination’ method for targeting individuals of high degree for vaccination. Branching process approximations are developed which yield a post-vaccination threshold parameter, and the asymptotic (large population) probability and final size of a major outbreak. We find that introducing an imperfect vaccine response into the present model for acquaintance vaccination leads to sibling dependence in the approximating branching processes, which may then require infinite type spaces for their analysis and are generally not amenable to numerical calculation. Thus, we propose and analyse an alternative model for acquaintance vaccination, which avoids these difficulties. The theory is illustrated by a brief numerical study, which suggests that the two models for acquaintance vaccination yield quantitatively very similar disease properties.
To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents.
Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia.
Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods.
School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P < 0·001) and girls (β = 0·03, P < 0·001). Furthermore, TV viewing (school day and weekend day) were positively associated with home availability of energy-dense snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P < 0·001) and girls (β = 0·28, P < 0·001). Home availability partly mediated the association between TV viewing and energy-dense snack consumption.
The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.