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Among the Yoruba people of S. W. Nigeria, there are innumerable poetic genres, or manners of intonation, rigidly prescribed by ritual convention (labelled simply “chant” in the West). Some of these genres—notably Ijálá and Rárà—have already been treated by scholars at the textual and/or linguistic levels. Śangó praise-poetry has hitherto received attention only from the literary standpoint. In a recent classification of indigenous poetic genres (Olatunji), the rendering of ritual praise-poetry with a particular intonation is given the name Pípé Òrìşá: for each órìşá, or deity, Pìpè has its own characteristic intonation. Thus, a sub-genre of Pìpè Òrìşá (the religious counterpart to the aforementioned secular Rárá chanting) is here referred to as Şángó-Pìpé. Literally, pìpè (pronounced KPEE-KPAY) means “to call or summon;” the indigenous term pìpè òrìşà derives from a specific moment in a cult ceremony when the priest or priestess invokes the òrìşá.
Radar profiles of bed echo intensity can survey conditions at the ice–bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about basal conditions from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the attenuation loss through the ice. We used the relationship between bed echo intensities from constant-offset radar data and ice thickness to estimate depth-averaged attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS), West Antarctica. We found values varying from 29 dBkm–1 at Siple Dome to 15 dBkm–1 in the main trunk region of KIS, in agreement with a previous measurement and models. Using these attenuation-rate values, we calculated the relative bed reflectivity throughout our KIS surveys and found that most of the bed in the trunk has high basal reflectivities, similar to those obtained in the location of boreholes that found water at the bed. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS. These results support previous hypotheses that the basal conditions at locations like the sticky spot on KIS control its stagnation and possible reactivation.
The stable-isotopic signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) has been routinely used in temperate lake systems to investigate the biogeochemical dynamics of carbon. We studied seven perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, to ascertain how carbon cycling affects the δ13C of DIC in water columns of these systems. Unlike temperate lakes and, in fact, most polar lake systems, the permanent ice covers of these lakes eliminate physical mixing (turnover) and hence redistribution of DIC in the lakes, as well as minimize CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. These important and unique physical constraints have significant impact on carbon dynamics in the lakes, and important consequences for the δ13C distribution. The geochemistry in these lakes is influenced in varying amounts by landscape position, hydrologic input and their evolutionary history. Five of these lakes (both lobes of Lake Bonney, and Lakes Fryxell, Miers and Vanda) have surface water δ13C ratios of 0–4‰, Lake Hoare has more negative values, while Lake Joyce, the highest-elevation lake, has a much higher value (10.5‰). All of the lakes have upper- to mid-depth δ13C maxima reflecting biological uptake of 12C. Only four of the lakes (Lakes Vanda, Joyce, Hoare and Fryxell) have deep waters with negative values of δ13C, implying rigorous remineralization of 12C at depth. Lake Miers, the only lake that is not closed basin, has the smallest δ13C variation with depth, indicating that hydrologic exchange greatly influences the δ13C signal.
Natural samples of the substituted basic Cu(II) chloride series, Cu4–xMx2+(OH)6Cl2(M = Zn, Ni, or Mg) were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in order to elucidate compositional boundaries associated with paratacamite and its congeners. The compositional ranges examined are Cu3.65Zn0.35(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.36Zn0.64(OH)6Cl2 and Cu3.61Ni0.39(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.13Ni0.87(OH)6Cl2, along with a single Mg-bearing phase. The majority of samples studied have trigonal symmetry (R3̄m) analogous to that of herbertsmithite (Zn) and gillardite (Ni), with a ≈ 6.8, c ≈ 14.0 Å. Crystallographic variations for these samples caused by composition are compared with both published and new data for the R3̄m sub-cell of paratacamite, paratacamite-(Mg) and paratacamite-(Ni). The observed trends suggest that the composition of end-members associated with the paratacamite congeners depend upon the nature of the substituting cation.
The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.
The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30 445 men and women, aged 40–79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25 639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99 % members of the cohort; 10 354 (89·8 %) of the men and 12 779 (91·5 %) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (sd 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (sd 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m2. Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies.
Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 % of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 % lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 % lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.
The study began in 1978 at Glenbranter Forest, Argyll. Use of habitat by red and roe deer was measured from the accumulation of pellet groups and from observations. Approximately 2000 trees less than 9 years old and 6000 older ones were monitored for damage and response.
Habitats in areas dominated by heather in or close to the forest were the most occupied by both species and pole-stage crops the least. However, most dung was found on the extensive areas of recently planted ground. Roe deer were relatively more abundant than red deer in stands of 9 to 15 year-old trees.
In summer, red deer ate mainly grasses and roe mainly forbs. In winter, these preferences remained, but Calluna became more important to both.
Browsing on leaders was heaviest in winter and May–June. Approximately 50% of leaders on trees less than 6 years old were browsed annually. Most trees regained leaders within 12 months, many becoming multi-stemmed. Of the trees. 1% were bark-stripped per annum. In older stands the smaller trees were most damaged, in younger stands the larger trees.
No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between substance use and brain volume changes in a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
To examine the effects of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia at the point of entry to the Edinburgh High-Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal complex volume change in high-risk individuals exposed (n = 25) and not exposed (n = 32) to cannabis in the intervening period was investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Cannabis exposure was associated with bilateral thalamic volume loss. This effect was significant on the left (F = 4.47, P = 0.04) and highly significant on the right (F=7.66, P=0.008). These results remained significant when individuals using other illicit drugs were removed from the analysis.
These are the first longitudinal data to demonstrate an association between thalamic volume loss and exposure to cannabis in currently unaffected people at familial high risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.
We explored the views of foundation doctors on psychiatry placements to inform further post development. Following criticism of some South Thames Foundation School (STFS) psychiatry placements, STFS staff reviewed existing information on post quality and 21 foundation doctors in psychiatry posts took part in three focus groups.
Trainees are concerned about the general quality of posts (including supervision and induction); isolation of mental health trusts from ‘acute’ trusts; the professional position of junior psychiatrists; and responsibilities related to the Mental Health Act and risk assessment. Requirements for posts to address these issues have been developed and are now being implemented locally.
The conclusions are relevant to the quality management of foundation posts in mental health trusts, responses to the Collins Report (2010) and future recruitment into psychiatry.
The Infinite Time Turing Machine model  of Hamkins and Kidder is, in an essential sense, a “Σ2-machine” in that it uses a Σ2Liminf Rule to determine cell values at limit stages of time. We give a generalisation of these machines with an appropriate Σn rule. Such machines either halt or enter an infinite loop by stage , again generalising precisely the ITTM case.
The collection of such machines taken together computes precisely those reals of the least model of analysis.