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There is a paucity of long-term prospective disaster studies of the psychological sequelae among survivors.
At 1½ and 25 years after the Spitak earthquake, 142 early adolescents from two cities were assessed: Gumri (moderate–severe exposure) and Spitak (very severe exposure). The Gumri group included treated and not-treated subjects, while the Spitak group included not-treated subjects. Instruments included: DSM-III-R PTSD-Reaction Index (PTSD-RI); DSM-5 PTSD-Checklist (PCL); Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS); and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D).
(1) Between 1½ and 25 years, PTSD rates and mean scores decreased significantly in the three groups (over 50%). However, at 25 years 9.1–22.4% met DSM-5 PTSD criteria. (2) At 1½ years, the Spitak group had higher PTSD-RI (p < 0.001) and DSRS scores (p < 0.001) compared to the Gumri-not-treated group. At 25 years, the Spitak group that had experienced fewer post-earthquake adversities (p < 0.03), had a greater decrease in PTSD-RI scores (p < 0.02), and lower CES-D scores (p < 0.01). (3) Before treatment, PTSD-RI and DSRS scores did not differ between the Gumri-treated and not-treated groups. At 25-years, the Gumri-treated group showed a greater decrease in PTSD-RI scores (p < 0.03), and lower mean PTSD-RI (p < 0.02), PCL (p < 0.02), and CES-D (p < 0.01) scores. (4) Predictors of PTSD symptom severity at 25-years included: home destruction, treatment, social support, post-earthquake adversities, and chronic medical illnesses.
Post-disaster PTSD and depressive symptoms can persist for decades. Trauma-focused treatment, alleviation of post-disaster adversities, improving the social ecology, and monitoring for chronic medical illnesses are essential components of recovery programs.
Prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a national priority and may be facilitated by deployment of the Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy, a quality improvement framework providing a focused approach to infection prevention. This article describes the process and outcomes of TAP Strategy implementation for CDI prevention in a healthcare system.
Hospital A was identified based on CDI surveillance data indicating an excess burden of infections above the national goal; hospitals B and C participated as part of systemwide deployment. TAP facility assessments were administered to staff to identify infection control gaps and inform CDI prevention interventions. Retrospective analysis was performed using negative-binomial, interrupted time series (ITS) regression to assess overall effect of targeted CDI prevention efforts. Analysis included hospital-onset, laboratory-identified C. difficile event data for 18 months before and after implementation of the TAP facility assessments.
The systemwide monthly CDI rate significantly decreased at the intervention (β2, −44%; P = .017), and the postintervention CDI rate trend showed a sustained decrease (β1 + β3; −12% per month; P = .008). At an individual hospital level, the CDI rate trend significantly decreased in the postintervention period at hospital A only (β1 + β3, −26% per month; P = .003).
This project demonstrates TAP Strategy implementation in a healthcare system, yielding significant decrease in the laboratory-identified C. difficile rate trend in the postintervention period at the system level and in hospital A. This project highlights the potential benefit of directing prevention efforts to facilities with the highest burden of excess infections to more efficiently reduce CDI rates.
Sulfur-bearing monazite-(Ce) occurs in silicified carbonatite at Eureka, Namibia, forming rims up to ~0.5 mm thick on earlier-formed monazite-(Ce) megacrysts. We present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrating that sulfur is accommodated predominantly in monazite-(Ce) as sulfate, via a clino-anhydrite-type coupled substitution mechanism. Minor sulfide and sulfite peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, however, also indicate that more complex substitution mechanisms incorporating S2– and S4+ are possible. Incorporation of S6+ through clino-anhydrite-type substitution results in an excess of M2+ cations, which previous workers have suggested is accommodated by auxiliary substitution of OH– for O2–. However, Raman data show no indication of OH–, and instead we suggest charge imbalance is accommodated through F– substituting for O2–. The accommodation of S in the monazite-(Ce) results in considerable structural distortion that may account for relatively high contents of ions with radii beyond those normally found in monazite-(Ce), such as the heavy rare earth elements, Mo, Zr and V. In contrast to S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in other carbonatites, S-bearing monazite-(Ce) at Eureka formed via a dissolution–precipitation mechanism during prolonged weathering, with S derived from an aeolian source. While large S-bearing monazite-(Ce) grains are likely to be rare in the geological record, formation of secondary S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in these conditions may be a feasible mineral for dating palaeo-weathering horizons.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Given the poor prognosis of HCC and its increasing incidence worldwide, identifying biomarkers of HCC has been an active area of research. While biomarkers are being identified at a rapid pace, many are still in early phases of clinical study and very few have proven clinical utility. The objective of this study is to identify novel biomarkers of HCC and evaluate their clinical utility as predictors of disease development and prognosis with specific emphasis on disease recurrence after liver transplantation. Biomarkers will be identified through GWAS, as well as through analysis of qualitative and quantitative liver traits by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These novel biomarkers will then by implemented into risk prediction models aimed to assess an individual’s risk for development of HCC and stratify their level of risk according to predicted disease prognosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This will be a case-control study, analyzing data from previously created biorepositories from four cohorts of recipients across multiple centers which have undergone liver transplant. First, a GWAS will be performed to identify genetic variant(s). Second, pre-transplant MRI’s will be evaluated using CAVASS software to assess liver quantitative and qualitative traits, including visceral adiposity. Lastly, these findings will be implemented into risk stratification models to assess each individual’s level of risk for development of HCC and for recurrence of HCC after transplant. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that genetic variant(s) are associated with positive HCV status and the development of HCC. Additionally, we hypothesize that increased visceral adiposity measured by MRI will have an association with recurrence of HCC after transplant. Lastly, we hypothesize that possession of these aforementioned features will be associated with an increased risk of HCC development and recurrence after transplant. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: As more is learned about the nature and reliability of these biomarkers, their potential clinical applications will be revealed. Ideally these proposed risk score models will ultimately be used by clinicians to provide personalized disease management while optimizing the allocation of health care resources. For instance, this may lead to changes in the MRI screening frequency of patients considered to be at high risk for HCC. The ability to diagnose patients early and provide personalized therapies may ultimately result in fewer disease related mortalities in the future.
The Tower Hamlets Crisis House (voluntary sector), in partnership with the local home treatment team, offers a brief residential alternative to psychiatric hospital admission. Here, we review clinician-reported (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales; HoNOS) and patient-reported (DIALOG) outcome scores collected from successive admissions between June 2015 and December 2016, to assess the effectiveness of the service model. We identified 153 successive admissions, and of these, 85 (55.6%) and 91 (59.5%) patients completed both admission and discharge DIALOG and HoNOS questionnaires, respectively. We analysed ten out of twelve HoNOS domains and eight patient-reported outcome measure DIALOG domains.
We found a statistically significant improvement in nine out of ten domains of HoNOS and three out of eight domains of DIALOG.
A partnership between a home treatment team and crisis house can result in positive outcomes for patients, as determined by both clinicians and patients.