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A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
In a recent paper (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 861, 2019, pp. 328–348), Benilov derived equations governing a laminar liquid sheet (a curtain) that emanates from a slot whose centreline is inclined to the vertical. The equations are valid for slender sheets whose characteristic length scale in the direction of flow is much larger than its cross-sectional thickness. For a liquid that leaves a slot with average speed,
, volumetric flow rate per unit width,
, surface tension,
, and density,
, Benilov obtains parametric equations that predict steady-state curtain shapes that bend upwards against gravity provided
. Benilov’s parametric equations are shown to be identical to those derived by Finnicum, Weinstein, and Ruschak (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 255, 1993, pp. 647–665). In the latter form, it is straightforward to deduce an alternative solution of Benilov’s equations where a curtain falls vertically regardless of the slot’s orientation. This solution is consistent with prior experimental and theoretical results that show that a liquid curtain can emerge from a slot at an angle different from that of the slot centreline.
A survey of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) was conducted in the northern Ross Sea region during the winter of 2016 to document the timing and location of spawning activity, to collect biological information about reproductive status during the spawning season and to look for temporal signals in biological data from D. mawsoni that may indicate a spawning migration of mature toothfish from the continental slope region to the northern Ross Sea region. The 58 day survey showed that spawning of D. mawsoni began on some seamounts by early July. No changes were detected between winter and summer in length, age, sex ratio or condition factor distributions for D. mawsoni in the northern Ross Sea as hypothesized following a spawning migration from the slope to the northern Ross Sea region. These results suggest that the distribution of D. mawsoni in the Ross Sea is mainly accomplished through ontogenetic migration and not annual return spawning migrations.
As demonstrated by neuroimaging data, the human brain contains systems that control responses to threat. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality predicts that individual differences in the reactivity of these brain systems produce anxiety and fear-related personality traits. Here we discuss some of the challenges in testing this theory and, as an example, present a pilot study that aimed to dissociate brain activity during pursuit by threat and goal conflict. We did this by translating the Mouse Defense Test Battery for human fMRI use. In this version, dubbed the Joystick Operated Runway Task (JORT), we repeatedly exposed 24 participants to pursuit and goal conflict, with and without threat of electric shock. The runway design of JORT allowed the effect of threat distance on brain activation to be evaluated independently of context. Goal conflict plus threat of electric shock caused deactivation in a network of brain areas that included the fusiform and middle temporal gyri, as well as the default mode network core, including medial frontal regions, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus, and laterally the inferior parietal and angular gyri. Consistent with earlier research, we also found that imminent threat activated the midbrain and that this effect was significantly stronger during the simple pursuit condition than during goal conflict. Also consistent with earlier research, we found significantly greater hippocampal activation during goal conflict than pursuit by imminent threat. In conclusion, our results contribute knowledge to theories linking anxiety disorders to altered functioning in defensive brain systems and also highlight challenges in this research domain.
The Upper Gunnison Basin (UGB), Colorado, is a montane region characterized by unusual physiography and topographic isolation. Excavations of three caves in the UGB provide one of the most diverse records of high-elevation late Quaternary vertebrates in North America. The localities, Haystack Cave (2450 m above sea level [m asl]), Cement Creek Cave (2860 m asl), and Signature Cave (3055 m asl), together provide a near-continuous record of vertebrate communities that extends from before the last glacial maximum to the present. These communities largely represent a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe-tundra environment that prevailed throughout the UGB in the late Pleistocene. At least five taxa of extinct large mammals disappear from the UGB by the Early Holocene; one small mammal (the short-faced skunk Brachyprotoma cf. B. brevimala) also became extinct. The fossil record further indicates that only four small extant mammals (Sorex preblei, Dicrostonyx sp., Lemmiscus curtatus, and Urocitellus elegans) were extirpated from the UGB by the Early Holocene, in part because of community restructuring and loss of open habitats with expansion of forests to higher elevations. An analysis of taxonomic richness and evenness at Cement Creek Cave indicates high resilience in the small mammal community despite major climate shifts over the past 40,000+ yr.
Herbicide resistance is a major problem in United States and global agriculture, driving farmers to consider other methods of weed control. One of these methods is harvest weed seed control (HWSC), which has been demonstrated to be effective in Australia. HWSC studies were conducted across Virginia in 2017 and 2018, targeting Italian ryegrass in continuous winter wheat as well as common ragweed and Palmer amaranth in continuous soybean. These studies assessed the impact of HWSC (via weed seed removal) on weed populations in the next year’s crop compared with conventional harvest (weed seeds returned). HWSC reduced Italian ryegrass tillers compared with the conventional harvest at two locations in April (29% and 69%), but no difference was observed at a third location. At wheat harvest, HWSC at one location reduced Italian ryegrass seed heads (41 seed heads m−2) compared with conventional harvest (125 seed heads m−2). In soybean, before preplant herbicide applications and POST herbicide applications, HWSC reduced common ragweed densities by 22% and 26%, respectively, compared with the conventional harvest plots. By soybean harvest, no differences in common ragweed density, seed retention, or crop yield were observed, because of effectiveness of POST herbicides. No treatment differences were observed at any evaluation timing for Palmer amaranth, which is attributed to farmer weed management (i.e., effective herbicides) and low weed densities making any potential treatment differences difficult to detect. Across wheat and soybean, there were no differences observed in crop yield between treatments. Overall, HWSC was demonstrated to be a viable method to reduce Italian ryegrass and common ragweed populations.
The archaeological site of Saruq al-Hadid, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presents a long sequence of persistent temporary human occupation on the northern edge of the Rub’ al-Khali desert. The site is located in active dune fields, and evidence for human activity is stratified within a deep sequence of natural dune deposits that reflect complex taphonomic processes of deposition, erosion and reworking. This study presents the results of a program of radiocarbon (14C) and thermoluminescence dating on deposits from Saruq al-Hadid, allied with studies of material remains, which are amalgamated with the results of earlier absolute dating studies provide a robust chronology for the use of the site from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period. The results of the dating program allow the various expressions of human activity at the site—ranging from subsistence activities such as hunting and herding, to multi-community ritual activities and large scale metallurgical extraction—to be better situated chronologically, and thus in relation to current debates regarding the development of late prehistoric and early historic societies in southeastern Arabia.
In the USA, western Washington (WWA) and the Alaska (AK) Interior are two regions where maritime and continental climates, high latitude and cropping systems necessitate early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Both regions aim to increase the production of hard spring bread wheat for human consumption to support regional agriculture and food systems. The Nordic region of Europe has a history of breeding for early maturing spring wheat and also experiences long daylengths with mixed maritime and continental climates. Nordic wheat also carries wildtype (wt) NAM-B1, an allele associated with accelerated senescence and increased grain protein and micronutrient content, at a higher frequency than global germplasm. Time to senescence, yield, protein and mineral content were evaluated on 42 accessions of Nordic hard red spring wheat containing wt NAM-B1 over 2 years on experimental stations in WWA and the AK Interior. Significant variation was found by location and accession for time to senescence, suggesting potential parental lines for breeding programmes targeting early maturity. Additionally, multiple regression analysis showed that decreased time to senescence correlated negatively with grain yield and positively with grain protein, iron and zinc content. Breeding for early maturity in these regions will need to account for this potential trade-off in yield. Nordic wt NAM-B1 accessions with early senescence yet with yields similar to regional checks are reported. Collaboration among alternative wheat regions can aid in germplasm exchange and varietal development as shown here for the early maturing trait.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
We have studied a series of laminated thin films by x-ray diffraction to correlate their structural and magnetic properties. Previous works have shown that the signal-to-noise characteristics of laminated magnetic films with non-magnetic interlayers can exceed that of single layer magnetic films. In the case where the magnetic layer is known to have low signal-to-noise performance, the signal has been observed to increase as the number of layers whereas the noise increases as the square root of the number of layers. This yields a net improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, making the overall film more attractive as a magnetic recording medium. In this paper, we investigate films which are laminated layers of magnetic CoPtCr and non-magnetic Cr. The films were deposited with sputtering parameters that generally give low noise characteristics in single layer films. Up to four layers of CoPtCr films were made with Cr spacer layers of 2 nm. We observe some improvement in signal-to-noise characteristics and reduction in coercivity. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the crystallographic c-axis, which corresponds to the magnetic easy axis, becomes more preferentially oriented perpendicular to the film plane with each additional layer. This change in preferred orientation is consistent with the reduced in-plane coercivity of the film. In the double CoPtCr layer with one Cr spacer layer experiment, we see that as the Cr spacer layer is increased from 0.5 to 8 nm, the c-axis of the CoPtCr again becomes more preferentially oriented out of the film plane, resulting in decreased in-plane coercivity. The media signal-to-noise improves once the Cr spacer layer is beyond 2 nm, consistent with previous observations.
Since the introduction of laser-assisted atom probe, analysis of nonconductive materials by atom probe tomography (APT) has become more routine. To obtain high-quality data, a number of acquisition variables needs to be optimized for the material of interest, and for the specific question being addressed. Here, the rutile (TiO2) reference material ‘Windmill Hill Quartzite,’ used for secondary ion mass spectrometry U–Pb dating and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, was analyzed by laser-assisted APT to constrain optimal running conditions. Changes in acquisition parameters such as laser energy and detection rate are evaluated in terms of their effect on background noise, ionization state, hit-multiplicity, and thermal tails. Higher laser energy results in the formation of more complex molecular ions and affects the ionization charge state. At lower energies, background noise and hit-multiplicity increase, but thermal tails shorten. There are also correlations between the acquisition voltage and several of these metrics, which remain to be fully understood. The results observed when varying the acquisition parameters will be discussed in detail in the context of utilizing APT analysis of rutile within geology.
ALKS 3831, currently under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, is composed of olanzapine (OLZ) and a fixed dose of 10mg of samidorphan. In a Phase 2 study in stable patients with schizophrenia, ALKS 3831mitigated OLZ-associated weight gain while maintaining an antipsychotic efficacy profile similar to OLZ.
To assess the efficacy and safety of ALKS 3831 in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.
This was a Phase 3, 4-week, randomized, double-blind, active and placebo (PBO)-controlled study of ALKS 3831 in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02634346). Eligible patients (N=403) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive ALKS 3831, OLZ, or PBO. Patients were treated in an inpatient setting for the first 2weeks of the study and could be treated as inpatients or outpatients for the remaining 2weeks. Patients were excluded if they received OLZ within 6months prior to screening. Antipsychotic efficacy was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) and CGI–Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Safety and tolerability were assessed as adverse events (AEs).
Of 401 randomized patients who received ALKS 3831, OLZ, or PBO, 91%, 89%, and 83% of patients, respectively, completed treatment. The most common reason for discontinuation was withdrawal by patient (6% in both the ALKS 3831and PBO groups, and 7% in the OLZ group). Baseline characteristics were generally similar between groups; however, baseline mean body mass index was higher in the OLZ group than in the ALKS 3831 group. Baseline mean±standard deviation scores were 101.7±11.9 for PANSS total score and 5.1±0.7 for CGI-S scale score. The mean OLZ dose was 18.4mg/day in both active treatment arms. Least squares (LS) mean difference±standard error (SE) vs PBO from baseline to Week 4 in PANSS total score was –6.4±1.8 (P<.001) for the ALKS 3831 group and –5.3±1.8 (P=.004) for the OLZ group. LS mean difference±SE vs PBO from baseline to Week 4 in CGI-S scale score was −0.4±0.1 (P=.002) for the ALKS3831 group and −0.4±0.1 (P<.001) for the OLZ group. The percentage of patients with improvement in PANSS response (≥30% from baseline) at Week 4 was 60%, 54%, and 38% in the ALKS 3831, OLZ, and PBO groups, respectively. The percentage of patients with an improvement in CGI-I scale response (score of ≤2) at Week 4 was 58%, 51%, and 33% in the ALKS 3831, OLZ, and PBO groups, respectively. Discontinuation due to AEs was low in all groups. Common AEs (≥5% in any group) included weight gain, somnolence, dry mouth, anxiety, headache, and schizophrenia.
Treatment with ALKS 3831 was more effective than PBO, as measured by the PANSS and CGI-S scale, and its antipsychotic efficacy was similar to the active control OLZ. The safety profile of ALKS 3831 was similar toOLZ.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Alkermes, Inc.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Lung cancer claims 160,000 lives in the United States every year, and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is the most frequent type. Early diagnosis is crucial. Computed tomography (CT) is very sensitive in identifying early-stage lung nodules, but has low specificity. Increased glucose uptake is a hallmark of cancer measurable in vivo by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET). FDG PET is widely used for cancer staging but has low sensitivity in the diagnosis of solitary lung nodules. We have previously identified an alternative glucose transporter, SGLT2, expressed in different types of cancer but not detected by FDG PET. SGLT2 activity can be measured in vivo with the PET tracer methyl-4-fluorodeoxyglucose (Me4FDG). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that SGLT2 is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target in FDG-negative, early stage LADC. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To study glucose transporter expression in LADC, we performed immunohistochemistry with SGLT2- and GLUT1-specific antibodies in human lung pre-malignant lesions and LADC samples. To verify the possibility of detecting SGLT2 activity in vivo, we performed microPET imaging with the SGLT-specific tracer Me4FDG in a Kras-driven, p53-null genetically engineered mouse model and in patient-derived xenografts of LADC. Finally, we performed therapeutic trials in genetically engineered and patient-derived mouse models of LADC with the FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We observed a switch in the modality of glucose transport during lung carcinogenesis: SGLT2 was highly expressed in pre-malignant lesions and well-differentiated LADC, whereas GLUT1 was upregulated in advanced, poorly differentiated lesions. This pattern was observed both in human samples and in murine models. This observation led us to hypothesize that early-stage LADCs are often negative on FDG PET because this imaging modality does not detect the activity of SGLT2, which is expressed in early lesions. Therefore, we performed PET imaging with the tracer Me4FDG, that measures SGLT2 activity, in our mouse model, and observed that Me4FDG accumulated in small nodules that were negative with FDG. We confirmed the functionality of SGLT2 in human LADC by Me4FDG PET in patient-derived xenografts. To investigate the role of SGLT2-mediated glucose uptake in the early stages of LADC development, we treated both genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenografts with FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors, showing that SGLT2 inhibition effectively reduced LADC growth and prolonged survival in mouse models. In addition, Me4FDG uptake predicted response to SGLT2 inhibition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results show that sodium-dependent glucose transport is a critical metabolic supply strategy in the early stages of lung adenocarcinoma development, and that Me4FDG is a novel biomarker of early LADC and of SGLT-dependent tumor growth. The discovery of SGLT2 in LADC highlighted the need for a re-interpretation of FDG-negative lung nodules, which might rely on SGLT2 for glucose uptake, and therefore may be detected by the new tracer Me4FDG. We anticipate our findings will lead to clinical studies evaluating Me4FDG as a diagnostic tracer for solitary lung nodules and early LADC, and as a biomarker for the selection of patients eligible for treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative procedure for hematological malignancies. Chronic graft Versus host disease (cGVHD) is a lethal complication that often develops after allo-HCT. Fli-1 is an aberrantly expressed protein in cancers including erythroleukemia and melanoma, while being implicated in pathogenesis of systemic lupus in mice and humans, a disease with marked similarity to cGVHD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: cGVHD was induced using hematopoietic cells from conditional knock-out mice deficient for the fli-1 gene specifically on T cells and progression of cGVHD in murine allo-HCT recipients was monitored using a clinical scoring system, and changes in activation status of hematopoietic cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Recipients transplanted with fli-1 deficient T cells exhibited reduced cGVHD clinical scores compared with littermate wild-type controls. Donor-grafts containing fli-1 deficient T cells were associated with restrained T-cell responses including reduced Interferon-y cytokine production, PD-1 expression, and differentiation into follicular helper T cells. fli-1 T-cell deficient donor-grafts also improved donor B-cell reconstitution and reduced plasma cells in allo-HCT recipients relative to littermate wild-type control donor-graft recipients. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Thus, inhibiting Fli-1 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the goal of preventing cGVHD after allo-HCT while also directly targeting cancers which aberrantly express Fli-1.