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Zoos can play an integral role in headstarting, a conservation strategy involving the rearing of animals in zoos from birth or hatching and throughout the time when they are susceptible to the mortalities young animals experience in nature. Once they pass that critical period, they are returned to nature to help sustain wild populations. WCS’s Bronx and Queens zoos are involved in several such programs. The Bronx Zoo was instrumental in identifying the parameters required to rear maleo chicks, an endangered Indonesian bird. WCS’s field program in Indonesia adopted these protocols and 12,772 chicks have been headstarted since 2001. The Queens and Roger Williams Park Zoos are part of a multiagency team headstarting New England cottontail rabbits (NECTs), a species with a declining population. To date, 191 NECTs have been reintroduced to sites in New England. The Bronx Zoo also works with Eastern hellbenders, the US’s largest amphibian. The zoo hatches hellbender eggs collected from Allegheny watershed streams and rears the young until they reach a size where they are too large for most aquatic predators. The zoo has successfully reared nearly 300 hellbenders for release.
One of the longest-lived, noncolonial animals on the planet today is a bivalve that attains life spans in excess of 500 years and lives in a cold, seasonally food-limited setting. Separating the influence of temperature and food availability on life span in modern settings is difficult, as these two conditions covary. The life spans of fossil animals can provide insights into the role of environment in the evolution of extreme longevity that are not available from studies of modern taxa. We examine bivalves from the unique, nonanalogue, warm and high-latitude setting of Seymour Island, Antarctica, during the greenhouse intervals of the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene. Despite significant sampling limitations, we find that all 11 species examined are both slow growing and long-lived, especially when compared with modern bivalves living in similar temperature settings. While cool temperatures have long been thought to be a key factor in promoting longevity, our findings suggest an important role for caloric restriction brought about by the low and seasonal light regime of the high latitudes. Our life-history data, spanning three different families, emphasize that longevity is in part governed by environmental rather than solely phylogenetic or ecologic factors. Such findings have implications for both modern and ancient latitudinal diversity gradients, as a common correlate of slow growth and long life is delayed reproduction, which limits the potential for evolutionary change. While life spans of modern bivalves are well studied, data on life spans of fossil bivalves are sparse and largely anecdotal. Life histories of organisms from deep time can not only elucidate the controls on life span but also add a new dimension to our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns.
Background: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke are associated with
a substantial risk of subsequent stroke; however, there is uncertainty about
whether such patients require admission to hospital for their initial
management. We used data from a clinical stroke registry to determine the
frequency and predictors of hospitalization for TIA or minor stroke across
the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods: The Ontario Stroke Registry collects information on a
population-based sample of all patients seen in the emergency department
with acute stroke or TIA in Ontario. We identified patients with minor
ischemic stroke or TIA included in the registry between April 1, 2008, and
March 31, 2011, and used multivariable analyses to evaluate predictors of
hospitalization. Results: Our study sample included 8540 patients with minor ischemic stroke
or TIA, 47.2% of whom were admitted to hospital, with a range of 37.6% to
70.3% across Ontario’s 14 local health integration network regions. Key
predictors of admission were preadmission disability, vascular risk factors,
presentation with weakness, speech disturbance or prolonged/persistent
symptoms, arrival by ambulance, and presentation on a weekend or during
periods of emergency department overcrowding. Conclusions: More than one-half of patients with minor stroke or TIA were not
admitted to the hospital, and there were wide regional variations in
admission patterns. Additional work is needed to provide guidance to health
care workers around when to admit such patients and to determine whether
discharged patients are receiving appropriate follow-up care.
Mouse t haplotypes have been divided into nine subregions that are each defined by one or more molecular markers. In previous studies, three of these subregions were shown to contain ‘distorter loci’ that interact to effect the transmission-ratio distortion phenotype characteristic of all complete t haplotypes. To determine which of the remaining six subregions also play a role in this phenotype, we analysed the accumulated data on transmission ratio distortion from males that carried one of 26 different combinations of two partial t haplotypes. We have obtained evidence for the association of two additional subregions with distorter loci. First, we present further evidence for the existence of a previously postulated distorter locus, Tcd-3, and describe its mapping to the T66C subregion. Secondly, we describe the identification of a new distorter locus, Tcd-4, in association with the subregion defined by the structural gene for the TCP-1 protein. Further studies indicate that two doses of the Tcd-4 locus are equivalent in effect to a single dose each of Tcd-4 and a second distorter locus, Tcd-1. This result suggests that different distorter locus products could have a common mode of action.
In an earlier paper I argued that Alvin Plantinga's defence of pure experiential theism (a theism epistemically based on religious experience) against the evidential problem of evil is inappropriately circular. Eric Snider rejects my argument claiming first that I do not get Plantinga's thought right. Second, he rejects a key principle my argument relies on, viz. the ‘independence constraint on neutralizers’. Finally, he offers an alternative to the independence constraint which allows the pure experiential theist to deal successfully with the evidential problem of evil. In this paper I argue that: (a) I have correctly characterized Plantinga's argument; and (b) that Snider's proposed counter-example to the independence constraint fails. Finally, I argue (c) that Snider's proposed alternative to the independence constraint is not a plausible epistemic principle.
This monograph summarizes the proceedings of a roundtable meeting convened to discuss pseudobulbar affect (PBA). Two didactic lectures were presented, followed by a moderated discussion among 11 participants. Post-meeting manuscript development synthesized didactic- and discussion-based content and incorporated additional material from the neuroscience literature. A conceptual framework with which to distinguish between disorders of mood and affect is presented first, and disorders of affect regulation are then reviewed briefly. A detailed description of the most common of these disorders, PBA, is the focus of the remainder of the monograph. The prevalence, putative neuranatomic and neurochemical bases of PBA are reviewed, and current and emerging methods of evaluation and treatment of persons with PBA are discussed. The material presented in this monograph will help clinicians better recognize, diagnose, and treat PBA, and will form a foundation for understanding and interpreting future studies of this condition.
Stereotyped, repeated transient ischemic attacks manifesting as pure motor hemiparesis are most often attributed to ischemia of the internal capsule or ventral pons resulting from in situ disease of the small penetrating arteries.
We report a 61-year-old man presenting with recurrent episodes of left-sided weakness consistent with the lacunar syndrome of pure motor hemiparesis. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed infarction of the right ventral pons and a critical basilar artery stenosis as the inciting lesion. Despite maximal antithrombotic therapy, he continued to have repeated symptoms. Angioplasty and stenting were attempted but both failed due to plaque recoil and technical difficulties. After the procedure, the patient had no further ischemic episodes and remained symptom-free at two months.
This case illustrates the imprecise and discordant relationship between the mode of presentation of a stroke syndrome and its presumed pathophysiology. The lacunar syndrome of pure motor hemiparesis should be recognized by clinicians as a mode of stroke presentation due not only to small vessel disease, but also to large artery atherosclerotic disease such as basilar artery stenosis. Prompt institution of treatment can lead to a good clinical outcome.