To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The association between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors among non-Hispanic whites has not been fully studied. Data from 650 non-Hispanic white adults who participated in one of two clinical sub-studies (about 2 years after the baseline) of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) were analysed. Four dietary patters were identified using a validated 204-item semi-quantitative FFQ completed at enrolment into AHS-2: vegans (8·3 %), lacto-ovo-vegetarians (44·3 %), pesco-vegetarians (10·6 %) and non-vegetarians (NV) (37·3 %). Dietary pattern-specific prevalence ratios (PR) of CVD risk factors were assessed adjusting for confounders with or without BMI as an additional covariable. The adjusted PR for hypertension, high total cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol were lower in all three vegetarian groups. Among the lacto-ovo-vegetarians the PR were 0·57 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·73), 0·72 (95 % CI 0·59, 0·88) and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·89), respectively, which remained significant after additionally adjusting for BMI. The vegans and the pesco-vegetarians had similar PR for hypertension at 0·46 (95 % CI 0·25, 0·83) and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·91), respectively, but estimates were attenuated and marginally significant after adjustment for BMI. Compared with NV, the PR of obesity and abdominal adiposity, as well as other CVD risk factors, were significantly lower among the vegetarian groups. Similar results were found when limiting analyses to participants not being treated for CVD risk factors, with the vegans having the lowest mean BMI and waist circumference. Thus, compared with the diet of NV, vegetarian diets were associated with significantly lower levels of CVD risk factors among the non-Hispanic whites.
Specimen survivability is a primary concern to those who utilize atom probe tomography (APT) for materials analysis. The state-of-the-art in understanding survivability might best be described as common-sense application of basic physics principles to describe failure mechanisms. For example, APT samples are placed under near-failure mechanical-stress conditions, so reduction in the force required to initiate field evaporation must provide for higher survivability—a common sense explanation of survivability. However, the interplay of various analytical conditions (or instrumentation) and how they influence survivability (e.g., decreasing the applied evaporation field improves survivability), and which factors have more impact than others has not been studied. In this paper, we report on the systematic analysis of a material composed of a silicon-dioxide layer surrounded on two sides by silicon. In total, 261 specimens were fabricated and analyzed under a variety of conditions to correlate statistically significant survivability trends with analysis conditions and other specimen characteristics. The primary result suggests that, while applied field/force plays an obvious role in survivability for this material, the applied field alone does not predict survivability trends for silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces. The rate at which ions are extracted from the specimen (both in terms of ions-per-pulse and pulse-frequency) has similar importance.
This article aims to explore the idea that enhancement technologies have been and will continue to be an essential element of what we might call the “human continuum,” and are indeed key to our existence and evolution into persons. Whereas conservative commentators argue that enhancement is likely to cause us to lose our humanity and become something other, it is argued here that the very opposite is true: that enhancement is the core of what and who we are. Using evidence from paleoanthropology to examine the nature of our predecessor species, and their proclivities for tool use, we can see that there is good reason to assume that the development of Homo sapiens is a direct result of the use of enhancement technologies. A case is also made for broad understandings of the scope of enhancement, based on the significant evolutionary results of acts that are usually dismissed as “unremarkable.” Furthermore, the use of enhancement by modern humans is no different than these prehistoric applications, and is likely to ultimately have similar results. There is no good reason to assume that whatever we may become will not also consider itself human.
Google Scholar (GS) is an important tool that faculty, administrators, and external reviewers use to evaluate the scholarly impact of candidates for jobs, tenure, and promotion. This article highlights both the benefits of GS—including the reliability and consistency of its citation counts and its platform for disseminating scholarship and facilitating networking—and its pitfalls. GS has biases because citation is a social and political process that disadvantages certain groups, including women, younger scholars, scholars in smaller research communities, and scholars opting for risky and innovative work. GS counts also reflect practices of strategic citation that exacerbate existing hierarchies and inequalities. As a result, it is imperative that political scientists incorporate other data sources, especially independent scholarly judgment, when making decisions that are crucial for careers. External reviewers have a unique obligation to offer a reasoned, rigorous, and qualitative assessment of a scholar’s contributions and therefore should not use GS.
Little is known about terrestrial climate dynamics in the Levant during the penultimate interglacial-glacial period. To decipher the palaeoclimatic history of the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 glacial period, a well-dated stalagmite (~194 to ~154 ka) from Kanaan Cave on the Mediterranean coast in Lebanon was analyzed for its petrography, growth history, and stable isotope geochemistry. A resolved climate record has been recovered from this precisely U–Th dated speleothem, spanning the late MIS 7 and early MIS 6 at low resolution and the mid–MIS 6 at higher resolution. The stalagmite grew discontinuously from ~194 to ~163 ka. More consistent growth and higher growth rates between ~163 and ~154 ka are most probably linked to increased water recharge and thus more humid conditions. More distinct layering in the upper part of the speleothem suggests strong seasonality from ~163 ka to ~154 ka. Short-term oxygen and carbon isotope excursions were found between ~155 and ~163 ka. The inferred Kanaan Cave humid intervals during the mid–MIS 6 follow variations of pollen records in the Mediterranean basins and correlate well with the synthetic Greenland record and East Asian summer monsoon interstadial periods, indicating short warm/wet periods similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during MIS 4–3 in the eastern Mediterranean region.
Catatonia is an underrecognized neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting approximately 10% of individuals hospitalized on inpatient psychiatric units. First-line treatments for this condition include benzodiazepines (BZD) and/or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, 20-40% of individuals do not respond to BZD alone and ECT is not always accessible. Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been used to treat catatonia in these circumstances. Here, we review the literature pertaining to the efficacy and safety of SGA in the treatment of catatonia.
We conducted a PubMed search for articles linking catatonia to antipsychotics, under the search heading “catatonia” or “kahlbaum” and “risperidone”, “amisulpride”, “iloperidone”, “olanzapine”, “aripiprazole”, “paliperidone”, “clozapine”, “brexpiprazole”, or “cariprazine”. Reports commenting on SGA treatment efficacy and/or their role in the development of catatonia were included in the analysis. Selected articles were reviewed for patient demographics, psychiatric/medical history, symptoms, cause of catatonia and treatment, and co-administered agents. For each SGA, we calculated the number of cases in which catatonia was likely improved with antipsychotic treatment, and the number of cases in which catatonia was precipitated or worsened with antipsychotic treatment (improved/worsened ratio). Case data was assessed using the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.
At the time this abstract was written, we reviewed 480 of the original 507 articles. One hundred and seventeen of the 480 met inclusion criteria. There was one randomized controlled trial (RCT), five prospective studies, four retrospective studies and 107 case reports. Of all reviewed literature quetiapine (34:3, 92%), aripiprazole (16:2, 89%), amisulpride (18:1, 95%), andclozapine (19:1, 95%) had the highest improved/worsened ratio, conversely paliperidone (0:5, 0%) had the lowest improved/worsened ratio.
Of the available literature quetiapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, and clozapine were found to be relatively safe andeffective as treatment options in catatonia, while palipderidone was found to have reports pointing to its role in the development/worsening, but none on the improvement, of catatonia. These results need to be interpreted with caution. In the majority of cases where SGA’s were effective, patients were co- treated with other pharmacologic agents (most frequently benzodiazepines), making it difficult to assess the role of the antipsychotic alone. Also, given that the preponderance of studies were case reports, publication bias may be an important limitation. Further studies are needed to examine the safety and efficacy of SGA in treating catatonia.
FK Com is an enigma among active cool stars. A rotationally driven magnetic dynamo is an explanation for activity. Youth and binarity are two causes of rapid rotation, but FK Com is old, single, and rotating near breakup. Much studied optical and ultraviolet data have not revealed the cause of its unusual activity. It is an important object in a more complete understanding of close binary star evolution and of the dynamo theory of magnetic activity. In 1989, we executed a coordinated ultraviolet and intensive optical spectroscopic and photometric campaign to better elucidate its characteristics. Data relevant to its evolutionary status, namely its radial velocity variations, will be discussed here, while an in depth study of the chromospheric activity will be deferred to a more detailed publication.
The Siwalik sequence, particularly the interval from 18 to 7 Ma, provides one of the few terrestrial data sets that allows direct measurement of temporal durations of mammalian species. Its data are drawn from a single biogeographic subprovince and superposed collections likely represent successive samples of single lineages. Observed temporal ranges underestimate total species longevities if (1) species existed in other biogeographic provinces before or after the temporal ranges recorded in the Siwaliks, or (2) the fossil record inadequately samples species durations in the Siwalik subprovince. Some data, notably from Afghanistan, China, and Thailand, bear on the first variable. The second can be controlled by considering data quality, in this case the temporal distribution of good data sets, to assess the scale of accuracy available for defining range endpoints. In general, range endpoints can be estimated to the nearest 0.1 million years.
The diverse Rodentia give a mean species longevity of 2.2 million years for the Miocene Siwaliks. This includes single records, but of course ignores unretrieved rare or short-lived taxa. The diverse Artiodactyla yield 3.1 million years. The difference may reflect greater body size and longer generation time; large Perissodactyla and Proboscidea have longer temporal ranges. Carnivorous mammals also show about 3 million year durations. Given these data, the average longevity for Sivapithecus species (1.6 million years) is modest. The deposits of the Clarks Fork Basin, Wyoming, offer a Paleogene data set comparable to that of the Neogene Siwaliks. Paleocene-Eocene mammals of North America yield shorter longevities (most less than one million years).
Extinction is the dominant mode of species termination for Siwalik mammals. Most taxa originated by immigration (as at about 13.5 Ma) or abrupt speciation. There are some cases for insitu transformation of lineages, for example in the genera Punjabemys, Antemus, Percrocuta, Dorcatherium, Giraffokeryx, and Selenoportax. The rodent Kanisamys shows a rate of increase in tooth size of 0.5 darwins. This overall rate is moderate by Paleogene standards, but includes an interval of more rapid change between 9.0 and 8.5 Ma.
Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings—intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences—might fit alongside the “baseline” human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of “human community.” The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him “more human than human.”
Using a population-based birth cohort in upstate New York (2008–2010), we examined the determinants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured in newborn dried blood spots (n = 2,637). We also examined the association between neonatal BDNF and children's development. The cohort was initially designed to examine the influence of infertility treatment on child development but found no impact. Mothers rated children's development in five domains repeatedly through age 3 years. Socioeconomic and maternal lifestyle determinants of BDNF were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Generalized linear mixed models estimated odds ratios for neonatal BDNF in relation to failing a developmental domain. Smoking and drinking in pregnancy, nulliparity, non-White ethnicity/race, and prepregnancy obesity were associated with lower neonatal BDNF. Neonatal BDNF was not associated with failure for developmental domains; however, there was an interaction between BDNF and preterm birth. In preterm infants, a higher BDNF was associated with lower odds of failing any developmental domains, after adjusting for confounders and infertility treatment. This result was particularly significant for failure in communication. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels in neonates may be impacted by maternal lifestyle characteristics. More specifically, lower neonatal BDNF might be an early marker of aberrant neurodevelopment in preterm infants.