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Lake Untersee is one of the largest perennially ice-covered lakes in Dronning Maud Land. We investigated the energy and water mass balance of Lake Untersee to understand its state of equilibrium. The thickness of the ice cover is strongly correlated with sublimation rates; variations in sublimation rates across the ice cover are largely determined by wind-driven turbulent heat fluxes and the number of snow-covered days. Lake extent and water level have remained stable for the past 20 years, indicating that the water mass balance is in equilibrium. The lake is damned by the Anuchin Glacier and mass balance calculation suggest that subaqueous melting of terminus ice contributes 40–45% of the annual water budget; since there is no evidence of streams flowing into the lake, the lake must be connected to a groundwater system that contributes 55–60% in order to maintain the lake budget in balance. The groundwater likely flows at a rate of ~8.8 × 10−2 m3 s−1, a reasonable estimate given the range of subglacial water flux in the region. The fate of its well-sealed ice cover is likely tied to changes in wind regime, whereas changes in water budget are more closely linked to the response of surrounding glaciers to climate change.
Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment. In a public healthcare system, wait times to see spine specialists and eventually access surgical treatment for CSM can be substantial. The goals of this study were to determine consultation wait times (CWT) and surgical wait times (SWT), and identify predictors of wait time length. Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network (CSORN) prospective and observational CSM study from March 2015 to July 2017 were included. A data-splitting technique was used to develop and internally validate multivariable models of potential predictors. Results: A CSORN query returned 264 CSM patients for CWT. The median was 46 days. There were 31% mild, 35% moderate, and 33% severe CSM. There was a statistically significant difference in median CWT between moderate and severe groups; 207 patients underwent surgical treatment. Median SWT was 42 days. There was a statistically significant difference in SWT between mild/moderate and severe groups. Short symptom duration, less pain, lower BMI, and lower physical component score of SF-12 were predictive of shorter CWT. Only baseline pain and medication duration were predictive of SWT. Both CWT and SWT were shorter compared to a concurrent cohort of lumbar stenosis patients (p <0.001). Conclusions: Patients with shorter duration (either symptoms or medication) and less neck pain waited less to see a spine specialist in Canada and to undergo surgical treatment. This study highlights some of the obstacles to overcome in expedited care for this patient population.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, is a remnant of the Laurentide ice sheet that separated from it about 8500 years ago. Owing to recession of the ice cap during the Holocene, Pleistocene-age ice is now exposed along the margin in a distinctive bubble-rich white band. δ18O variations across the white ice resemble those in Canadian Arctic ice cores, suggesting that Barnes Ice Cap preserves a climatic record through the last glacial period, possibly reaching back into the previous (Sangamon) interglacial. the δ18O shift at the Wisconsin–Holocene transition (15‰) exceeds that in other Canadian and Greenland records and cannot be explained solely in climatic terms. A steady-state model reconstruction of the Laurentide ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum suggests that Late-glacial strata in Barnes Ice Cap originated high up (>2400ma.s.l.) and far “inland” on the ice sheet, along a ridge that extended between the ancestral Foxe and Keewatin ice domes.
Correlation between glaciochemical time Series from an ice core collected on Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, and gridded time Series of Sea-ice concentrations reveals Statistically Significant inverse relationships between Sea-salt concentrations (mainly Na+, Mg2+ and Cl–) in the ice core and Sea-ice cover in Baffin Bay over the period 1980–97. An empirical orthogonal function (Eof) analysis performed on all major ions Shows that the dominant mode of glaciochemical variability (Eof1) represents a Sea-salt Signal, which correlates best with Sea-ice concentration in Baffin Bay. On a Seasonal basis, the Strongest and most Spatially extensive anticorrelations are found in Baffin Bay during the fall, followed by Spring, Summer and winter. These results Support the notion that increased open-water conditions in Baffin Bay during the Stormy Seasons (fall and Spring) promote increased production, transport and deposition of Sea-salt aerosols on Devon Ice Cap. Comparison of ice-core time Series of Eof1, δ18O and melt percentage, with air temperatures recorded in Upernavik, Greenland, Suggests that ice-cover variations in Baffin Bay over the past ∽145 years were dynamically rather than thermodynamically controlled, with periods of Strengthened cyclonic circulation leading to increased open-water conditions, and a greater Sea-salt flux on Devon Ice Cap.
The isotopic and chemical signatures for ice-age and Holocene ice from Summit, Greenland, and Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, are compared. the usual pattern of low δ18O, high Ca2+ and high Cl– is presented in the Summit records, but Penny Ice Cap has lower than present Cl– in its ice-age ice. A simple extension of the Hansson model (Hansson, 1994) is developed and used to simulate these signatures. the low ice-age Cl– from Penny Ice Cap is explained by having the ice-age ice originating many thousands of km inland near the centre of the Laurentide ice sheet and much further from the marine sources. Summit’s flowlines all start close to the present site. the Penny Ice Cap early-Holocene δ18O’s had to be corrected to offset the Laurentide meltwater distortion. the analysis suggests that presently the Summit and Penny Ice Cap marine impurity originates about 500 km away, and that presently Penny Ice Cap receives a significant amount of local continental impurity.
In order to reconstruct climatic and environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic, an 85 m deep ice core drilled in 1995 on Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, was analyzed for ions and δ18O. In addition to the core, snow-pit samples collected in 1994 and 1995 were also analyzed. Elution of ions caused by summer melting was observed in the pits. Due to the heavy summer melting on this ice cap, seasonal variations of ion chemistry and δ18O were not always present in the core. Comparisons of this core with a previously reported core drilled 2.5 maway show that the noise contained in single annual time series is 40–50% for ions and 25% for δ18O. the ice-core data, however, provide us with a reasonable proxy record of climatic and environmental changes during the last two centuries on better than a decadal basis. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations started to increase around 1900 and 1960, respectively, due to anthropogenic influx transported from the industrialized regions in North America. Sea-salt concentrations began to increase around the mid-19th century and were elevated throughout the 20th century. This trend of sea-salt concentrations is similar to that of melt percentage, which is a measure of summer temperature. Warming after the Little Ice Age would have reduced the sea-ice extent and led to the elevated sea-salt concentrations on Penny Ice Cap.
We present a complete climatic analysis of Sea-ice conditions in the Canadian Arctic based on digitized operational charts from the Canadian Ice Service for the period 1980–2004. The Seasonal climatology, Spatial variance and linear trends in total ice concentrations (CT) were calculated. The maximum reduction rate in CT was found in the Beaufort Sea (>24% decade–1) and in the Davis Strait/Labrador Sea region (>18% decade–1) during Spring and Summer. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis performed on monthly CT deviations yielded four Significant EOF modes explaining 32% of the total variance. The Spatial pattern, temporal behaviour and Seasonality of these four EOF modes are discussed and correlated with fields of Sea-level pressure, Surface winds, Surface air temperature and Sea-surface temperature monthly anomalies. These results point to the dominant influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on CT decadal anomalies during the cold Season, while climate variability in the Pacific influences CT variations in the Beaufort Sea region during Spring–summer.
An early study of the various components of the Greenland, Antarctic and Canadian Arctic ice-cap cores (Koerner, 1989) suggested that during the last interglacial period, the Greenland ice sheet suffered massive retreat and Canadian ice caps melted completely. Since then, modeling has helped support this interpretation (Cuffey and Marshall, 2000). Ice-core records of stable isotopes, melt layering and chemistry from the same Canadian ice cores, and others from the Russian Arctic islands, Svalbard and Greenland are presented as evidence for a more modest, but still substantial, retreat in the early Holocene. the sections representing the first half of the Holocene in many cores have less negative δ18O values (d values) and a higher percentage of melt layers than recently deposited ice, suggesting that temperatures were 1.3–3.5˚C warmer than today. Given that glacier balances are slightly negative today, they must have been substantially more negative during the early-Holocene thermal maximum, leading to retreat of the circumpolar ice caps. Evidence is presented to suggest that, with the exception of Academii Nauk ice cap, the ice in the Russian Arctic islands and Svalbard must have almost disappeared. In the Canadian Arctic, the larger Canadian ice caps retreated but survived. the cooling trend that followed this thermal maximum promoted re-expansion and new growth of most of the ice caps in the Russian Arctic islands and Svalbard.
In the past, several empirical firn-densification models have been developed fitted to measured density–depth profiles from Greenland and Antarctica. These models do not specifically deal with refreezing of meltwater in the firn. Ice lenses are usually indirectly taken into account by choosing a suitable value of the surface snow density. In the present study, a simple densification model is developed that specifically accounts for the content of ice lenses in the snowpack. An annual layer is considered to be composed of an ice fraction and a firn fraction. It is assumed that all meltwater formed at the surface in one year will refreeze in the corresponding annual layer, and that no additional melting or refreezing occurs in deeper layers. With this assumption, further densification is solely controlled by compaction of the firn fraction of the annual layer. Comparison of modelled and observed depth–density profiles from Canadian Arctic ice-core sites with large melting–refreezing percentages shows good agreement. The model is also used to estimate the long-term surface elevation change in interior Greenland that will result from temperature-driven changes of density–depth profiles. These surface elevation changes reflect a volume change of the ice sheet with no corresponding change of mass, i.e. a volume change that does not influence global sea level.
We discuss the striking kinematic properties of the S0 galaxy NGC 4550. A detailed analysis of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) along the major axis shows that this galaxy contains two cold, cospatial, counterrotating disks with indistinguishable scale lengths and luminosities. The two disks, twins save the signs of their spin, are also found to have exponential luminosity profiles. We discuss qualitatively how this system might have formed.
Line-strengths and their gradients in Mg, Fe, and Hβ have been determined for a sample of 9 brightest cluster (BCG), 7 elliptical, and 15 S0 galaxies in order to study their stellar populations and investigate their relationship to one another. We find that BCGs follow the same relationship between central Mgb line-strength and central velocity dispersion found for ellipticals while the S0 galaxies show significant scatter with respect to this relation. Brightest cluster galaxies are in agreement with the known trend towards more massive ellipticals having larger [Mg/Fe] ratios while the internal gradients within our BCG and E galaxies are consistent with a roughly constant [Mg/Fe] ratio. We find that a correlation exists between the central [Mg/Fe] ratio and average Hβ line-strength in the sense that BCG and E galaxies with larger [Mg/Fe] ratios have lower Hβ strengths. For our BCG and E galaxies, Hβ is the best predictor of [Mg/Fe] ratio. The Mgb metallicity gradients for BCGs and ellipticals are similar and consistent with a reduction in the mean metallicity of the stellar population by about a factor of 2 over a factor of ten in radius. No strong correlations are found between the metallicity gradient sizes and either kinematic or line-strength parameters of the E and BCG galaxies. The S0 disks display roughly constant Mg, Fe, and Hβ line-strengths with radius indicating that they have uniform age and metallicity throughout. S0 galaxy minor axes ‘bulge’ metal line-strength gradients are similar to elliptical gradients and fall to values lower than those found in the disks.
Prevailing social network frameworks examine the association between peer ties and behaviors, such as smoking, but the role of social isolates is poorly understood. Some theories predict isolated adolescents are protected from peer influence that increases smoking, while others suggest isolates are more likely to initiate smoking because they lack the social control provided by peer friendships. Building on a growing literature that seeks to explain these contradictions by moving beyond a homogeneous understanding of isolation, we identify the relationship between smoking and three distinct dimensions of isolation: avoided (adolescents who do not receive ties), withdrawn (adolescents who do not send ties), and externally oriented (adolescents who claim close out-of-grade friends). We examine the co-evolutionary effects of these dimensions and cigarette smoking using an autoregressive latent trajectory model with PROSPER Peers, a unique, longitudinal network dataset. These data include students (47% male and 86% white) from rural Iowa and Pennsylvania, ranging successively from grades 6–12 in eight waves of data. We find avoided isolation is associated with decreased subsequent smoking in high school. Smoking increases subsequent avoided and withdrawn isolation, but decreases external orientation.
Untersteincr and Nye (1968) calculated the possible future movement of Berendon Glacier, B.C. These calculations are repeated using much improved data and a slightly different method for computing the datum state. The predictions that result are very similar to those found in the earlier work. It is concluded, however, from mass-balance data, that the chance of the glacier rising sufficiently in the next 25 years to be a danger to the mining installations situated near the snout of the glacier is much greater than was previously considered. The sensitivity of the theory to changes in input data is discussed.
The Nimbus-6 satellite carries the Scanning Microwave Spectrometer experiment (SCAMS) which continuously maps the Earth’s surface at two frequencies (22.235 and 31.65 GHz) and at six angles besides nadir. Cluster analysis was applied to these observations to determine the influence of various geophysical parameters on the radiometric brightness temperatures.
Characteristic microwave signatures for a variety of terrain were obtained by this method; discrete clusters were distinguished for sea ice (with sub-classes for ice age and fractional ice cover) and firn (with accumulation-rate sub-classes). The availability of the angular data greatly facilitated separate determinations of the extent of continuous sea ice and mixtures of sea ice and water.
A global model is presented that simulates zonal averages of stable isotopes δ(18O), δ(D) and precipitation rates at sea level. The model is empirical and uses as input zonal averages of evaporation, meridional water-vapour flux, air temperature, sea temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sea-ice cover, and supersaturation in clouds as a function of temperature. The global model provides input to high-latitude regional solutions that are found integrating up assumed vapour trajectories, which need not be at sea level. Model precipitation rates, δ(18O) and δ(D), compare well to measured values on an annual and seasonal basis. The stable-isotope-temperature relation poleward of about 35° latitude as well as the isotope-precipitation relation in the tropics is simulated by the zonal global model. The Queen Elizabeth Islands stable-isotope pattern is given as an example of a regional solution of the model. Zonal moisture contributions for high-elevation sites are found to be different between northern hemisphere (Crête, Greenland) and southern hemisphere (Vostok, East Antarctica) with the southern high-latitude cold oceans making a larger relative contribution.