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Thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide (UO2) is an important nuclear fuel performance property. Radiation- and fission-induced defects and microstructures, such as xenon (Xe) gas bubbles, can degrade the thermal conductivity of UO2 significantly. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the effect of Xe bubble size and pressure on the thermal conductivity of UO2. At a given porosity, thermal conductivity increases with Xe cluster size, then reaches a nearly saturated value at a cluster radius of 0.6 nm, demonstrating that dispersed Xe atoms result in a lower thermal conductivity than clustering them into bubbles. In comparison with empty voids of the same size, Xe-filled bubbles lead to a lower thermal conductivity when the number ratio of Xe atoms to uranium vacancies (Xe:VU ratio) in bubbles is high. Detailed atomic-level analysis shows that the pressure-induced distortion of atoms at bubble surface causes additional phonon scattering and thus further reduces the thermal conductivity.
Psychological treatments provide many benefits for patients with psychiatric disorders, but research also suggests that negative effects might occur from the interventions involved. The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has previously been developed as a way of determining the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents, consisting of 32 items and six factors. However, the NEQ has yet to be examined using modern test theory, which could help to improve the understanding of how well the instrument works psychometrically.
The current study investigated the reliability and validity of the NEQ from both a person and item perspective, establishing goodness-of-fit, item bias, and scale precision.
The NEQ was distributed to 564 patients in five clinical trials at post-treatment. Data were analysed using Rasch analysis, i.e. a modern test theory application.
(1) the NEQ exhibits fairness in testing across sociodemographics, (2) shows comparable validity for a final and condensed scale of 20 instead of 32 items, (3) uses a rating scale that advances monotonically in steps of 0 to 4, and (4) is suitable for monitoring negative effects on an item-level.
The NEQ is proposed as a useful instrument for investigating negative effects in psychological treatments, and its newer shorter format could facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. However, further research is needed to explore the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, as well as to test it in more diverse patient populations.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising approach for increasing access to evidence-based treatments.
To develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an ICBT programme for young children with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), named BIP OCD Junior.
Eleven children aged 7–11 years were enrolled in a 12-week open trial of parent- and therapist-guided ICBT for OCD. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS).
There was a significant improvement in OCD symptoms post-treatment, with a large within-group effect size on the CY-BOCS (Cohen's d = 1.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.86). Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Both children and parents rated the treatment as credible and were highly satisfied with the intervention.
BIP OCD Junior is a feasible and credible treatment option for young children with OCD. Randomised controlled trials are needed to further establish its efficacy and cost-effectiveness relative to gold standard face-to-face CBT.
Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences.
Cognitive behavioural treatments (CBTs) are well-established for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few patients receive CBT, due to factors like geographical limitations, perceived stigmatization, and lack of CBT services. Some evidence suggests that computer-delivered cognitive-behavioural treatments (CCBTs) could be an effective strategy to improve patients’ access to CBT. To date a meta-analysis on effectiveness of CCBTs for OCD has not been conducted. The present study used meta-analytical techniques to summarize evidence on CCBTs for OCD on OCD and depression symptom outcomes at post-treatment and follow-up. A meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Treatments were classified as CCBTs if including evidence-based cognitive-behavioural components for OCD (psychoeducation, exposure and response prevention, cognitive restructuring), delivered through devices like computers, palmtops, telephone-interactive voice-response systems, CD-ROMS, and cell phones. Studies were included if they used validated outcomes for OCD. Eight studies met inclusion criteria (n = 392). A large effect favouring CCBTs over control conditions was found for OCD symptoms at post-treatment (d = 0.82, p = 0.001), but not for depression symptom outcomes (d = 0.15, p = 0.20). Theoretical implications and directions for research are discussed. A larger number of randomized controlled trials is required.
Porous platinum thin films were prepared by thermal decomposition at temperatures from 25 to 675 °C of platinum oxide films deposited by a pulsed reactive sputtering technique. The samples’ chemistry and structure were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), showing that the decomposition of the oxide begins as low as 400 °C and follows a sigmoidal trend with increasing annealing temperature. In the XRD spectra, only an amorphous-like signature was observed for temperatures below 575 °C, while Pt 4f XPS showed that the deposited oxide was a mixture of PtO2 and PtO. Pt-L3 edge XANES and Pt 4f XPS spectra showed that the Pt concentration and electronic structure are predominant for temperatures equal to or above 575 °C. The morphologies of the films were investigated by the area-perimeter method from atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, indicating that the surfaces exhibit a combination of Euclidian and fractal characteristics. Moreover, the thermal evolution of these characteristics indicates the agglomeration of the grains in the film as observed by SEM.
Laser interference patterning-induced microstructural modifications have been investigated in two noble metal-incorporated oxide thin film systems: Pd0.25Pt0.75Ox and gold-incorporated yttria-stabilized zirconia - Au-YSZ. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the influence of the laser treatment on the microstructure of the samples. In the case of Pd0.25Pt0.75Ox, the formation of a nanocomposite arrangement resulted from the precipitation of metal nanograins in the oxide matrix triggered by laser irradiation. In Au-YSZ, the starting microstructure consisted of gold nanograins embedded in a YSZ matrix. A noticeable growth and coalescence of gold nanograins occurred near the surface in the region of maximum interference. Simultaneously, a foamy morphology, mostly consisting of gold crystals, was formed at the film surface. In contrast to thermal annealing, the laser treatment proposed here is a fast procedure to partially relocate gold at the film surface and provide a local solid lubrication.
In Socialism after Hayek, Theodore Burczak uses Hayekian insights to argue in favor of a socialist society with real markets, but also with wealth redistribution and prohibition of wage labor. In so doing, he offers not only a socialist vision but also asks questions that may challenge Hayekian liberals to reformulate their institutional analyses. A critical assessment that combines Austrian and institutional theories leads to the conclusion that some redistributive policies may enhance the knowledge-disseminating function of markets, but that a market order that is limited to worker-managed firms diminishes the knowledge dissemination properties of the market process.
Multicolour imaging polarimetry of the main sequence star BD+31°643 shows that the Kalas & Jewitt (1997) disc extends to at least 13000AU. A disc of this radius must be dynamically very young compared to the central star, unlike the situation found in the β Pictoris system. A striking linear filament of 850μm emission detected 50″ south, that parallels the dust disk, is probably not physically associated.
An all-printed organic smart pixel is achieved through the combination of an electrochemical transistor and an electrochromic display cell. Smart pixels of this kind are arranged into a cross-point matrix resulting in an active-addressed display. This type of display has been realized on coated fine paper, operates at voltages less than 2 Volts and exhibits good bistability properties. Here we report on the operation characteristics of electrochemical smart pixels in which the ion concentration of the electrolyte has been varied.
We argue four points. First, perception always relies on environmental constraints, not only in special cases. Second, constraints are taken advantage of by detecting information granted by the constraints rather than by internalizing them. Third, apparent motion phenomena reveal reliance on constraints that are irrelevant in everyday perception. Fourth, constraints are selected through individual learning as well as evolution. The “perceptual-concept-of-velocity” phenomenon is featured as a relevant case. [Hecht; Kubovy & Epstein; Shepard]
Stoffregen & Bardy's proposal that perceptual systems can use information defined across two or more sensory domains is valuable and urgent in its own right. However, their claim of exclusive validity for global-array information is superfluous and perpetuated for incorrect reasons. The seeming ambiguities of individual arrays emanate from failures to consider relevant ecological constraints and higher-order variables.
Recent epidemiological studies have shown that hypertensive men are more likely to undergo surgical intervention for irritative voiding symptoms from BPH than age-matched controls. Indeed, noradrenergic nerves which regulate vascular tone also participate in the functional component of bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH. Newer, less invasive therapies for BPH such as thermal therapy can relieve symptoms yet do not eliminate obstruction based on urodynamic studies. Coincidentally, drugs such as [alpha]-adrenoceptor antagonists, which have been thought to relieve obstruction due to a peripheral effect, can be given intrathecally in animals to relieve urinary frequency due to obstruction. Taken together these observations implicate both peripheral and central sympathetic pathways in the motor control of the urinary bladder especially with disease states.We have used the hypertensive and behaviourally hyperactive spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), to investigate the roles sympathetic pathways or micturition. Elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) derived from vascular and bladder smooth muscle cells of the SHR appears to direct morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. The increase in NGF can apparently be explained by stabilization of its mRNA leading to increased synthesis of NGF. Bladders from SHRs develop a profuse noradrenergic hyperinnervation compared with the control WKY strain. Since afferents supplying the SHR bladder are hypertrophied, changes in afferent pathways are also likely.These differences in innervation and NGF in the SHR may explain changes in function. SHRs void 3 times as frequently as their genetic controls. Urinary frequency can be reduced by [alpha]-adrenoceptor antagonists. Cystometrograms performed in SHRs reveal lower bladder capacities and micturition volumes and the presence of unstable contractions compared with the WKY rat. Intrathecal, rather than intra-arterial administration of the [alpha]-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin reduces unstable contractions in the SHR. In vitro muscle bath studies have shown enhanced responses of SHR bladder smooth muscle to [alpha]-adrenoceptor agonists.It is likely that upregulation of NGF production causes sensory and possibly noradrenergic pathways to elicit hyperactive voiding. Increase in NGF in the adult bladder due to pathological conditions yields similar, yet distinct, consequences for voiding behaviour and innervation. Likewise, increased NGF in adult bladders following obstruction or inflammation triggers neuronal hypertrophy, enhanced reflex activity and urinary frequency. In contrast to the SHR, hyper-innervation is not observed. Moreover, peripheral or spinal [alpha]-adrenoceptor blockade eliminates urinary frequency following obstruction. These observations support the role for sympathetic pathways in the motor function of the bladder, especially in congenital or adult disease states. A similar process may underlie the neuroplasticity involved in alterations after obstruction or inflammation of the lower urinary tract in humans. The SHR strain raises the possibility that a common genetic defect exists capable of predisposing to both hypertension and overactivity of the urinary bladder. Whether a genetic predisposition to sustained bladder overactivity in response to inflammatory stimuli in obstruction exists in humans is an intriguing prospect.
This study focuses on the importance of patterns of adjustment problems in early adolescence and convictions for alcohol abuse in the mid-teens for the development of alcohol abuse manifested in early adulthood. The study was performed on a large and representative cohort of Swedish males, prospectively followed from age 13 to age 25. A person approach was applied in which the individuals and individual patterns of adjustment problems were the objects of interest, not single variables per se. The results showed that patterns of multiple adjustment problems in early adolescence, as well as convictions for alcohol abuse in the mid-teens, significantly increased the risk for later alcohol abuse. Among multiproblem boys also convicted for alcohol abuse in their mid-teens, 72% were registered for alcohol abuse at ages 18–24. However, early single adjustment problems did not significantly increase the risk for later alcohol abuse. The importance of studying the background of alcohol abuse from a developmental and interactionistic perspective was emphasized.
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