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The common practice of disaggregating student data by singular demographic fields such as race, English learner, or disability status can lead to flawed conclusions or reinforce harmful stereotypes. The Academic Support Index (ASI) provides an alternative lens for looking at student data by considering the interaction of seven common demographic fields and their relationship to academic achievement. The ASI has a strong association with outcomes including standardized assessments, grade point average, and postsecondary outcomes. This chapter will provide a history of the development of the ASI and its statistical foundation. Additionally, examples of how the ASI has been used to analyze data, identify students for support, design interventions, and evaluate programs are provided. The ASI has the potential to be an important tool in addressing both achievement and opportunity gaps.
Patent ductus arteriosus closure is traditionally performed by thoracotomy approach. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is a less frequently utilised alternative. We sought to compare elective surgical outcomes between the two methods via a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis.
All patients >3.2 kg undergoing surgical patent ductus arteriosus ligation at a single institution from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Propensity matching for age, weight, diuretic usage, and preterm status was conducted to adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Outcome measures included operative time, hospitalisation duration, post-operative complications, and re-operation.
A total of 173 patients were included, 127 thoracoscopy and 46 thoracotomy. In the unmatched cohorts, no significant difference in closure success was found (94% thoracoscopy versus 100% thoracotomy, p = 0.192). Although median operative time was longer for thoracoscopy (87 versus 56 minutes, p < 0.001), hospitalisation duration was shorter (1.05 versus 2.41 days, p < 0.001), as was ICU stay (0.00 versus 0.75 days, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in re-operation or complication rates, except chest tube placement (11% thoracoscopy versus 50% thoracotomy, p < 0.001). After matching (69 thoracoscopy versus 20 thoracotomy), these differences persisted, including median operative time (81 versus 56 minutes, p = 0.007; thoracoscopy versus thoracotomy), hospitalisation duration (1.25 versus 2.27 days, p < 0.001), and chest tube placement (17% versus 60%, p < 0.001). There remained no significant difference in complications or re-operations.
Thoracoscopic ligation was associated with shorter ICU and hospital stays and less frequent chest tube placement, but longer operative times. Other risks, including bleeding, chylothorax, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, were similar.
In clinical and translational research, data science is often and fortuitously integrated with data collection. This contrasts to the typical position of data scientists in other settings, where they are isolated from data collectors. Because of this, effective use of data science techniques to resolve translational questions requires innovation in the organization and management of these data.
We propose an operational framework that respects this important difference in how research teams are organized. To maximize the accuracy and speed of the clinical and translational data science enterprise under this framework, we define a set of eight best practices for data management.
In our own work at the University of Rochester, we have strived to utilize these practices in a customized version of the open source LabKey platform for integrated data management and collaboration. We have applied this platform to cohorts that longitudinally track multidomain data from over 3000 subjects.
We argue that this has made analytical datasets more readily available and lowered the bar to interdisciplinary collaboration, enabling a team-based data science that is unique to the clinical and translational setting.
The last three decades have seen the biotherapeutic drug market evolve from promising concept to market dominance in a range of clinical indications. This growth has been spurred by the success of established drug classes like monoclonal antibodies, but also by the introduction of biosimilars, and more recently, multiple novel cell and gene therapies. Biotherapeutic drug development presents many unique challenges, but unintended immune responses are among the most common reasons for program attrition. Anti-drug antibodies can impact the safety and efficacy of drug products, and related immune responses, like the cytokine release syndrome that occurred in the infamous TGN-1412 clinical trial, can be challenging to predict with nonclinical models. For this reason, it is important that development programs proceed with a scientifically grounded and measured approach to these responses. This process begins at the discovery stage with the application of “quality by design,” continues into the clinic with the development of quality assays and management strategies, and culminates in the effective presentation of this information in regulatory documents. This review provides an overview of some of the key strategic and regulatory considerations for biotherapeutics as they pertain to immunogenicity and related responses.
We present a calibration component for the Murchison Widefield Array All-Sky Virtual Observatory (MWA ASVO) utilising a newly developed PostgreSQL database of calibration solutions. Since its inauguration in 2013, the MWA has recorded over 34 petabytes of data archived at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre. According to the MWA Data Access policy, data become publicly available 18 months after collection. Therefore, most of the archival data are now available to the public. Access to public data was provided in 2017 via the MWA ASVO interface, which allowed researchers worldwide to download MWA uncalibrated data in standard radio astronomy data formats (CASA measurement sets or UV FITS files). The addition of the MWA ASVO calibration feature opens a new, powerful avenue for researchers without a detailed knowledge of the MWA telescope and data processing to download calibrated visibility data and create images using standard radio astronomy software packages. In order to populate the database with calibration solutions from the last 6 yr we developed fully automated pipelines. A near-real-time pipeline has been used to process new calibration observations as soon as they are collected and upload calibration solutions to the database, which enables monitoring of the interferometric performance of the telescope. Based on this database, we present an analysis of the stability of the MWA calibration solutions over long time intervals.
Regional anesthesia has many applications in the emergency department (ED). It has been shown to reduce general anesthetic dose, requirement for post-procedural opioids, and recovery time. We sought to characterize the use of regional anesthesia by Canadian emergency physicians, including practices, perspectives and barriers to use in the ED.
A cross-sectional survey was administered to members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP), consisting of sixteen multiple choice and numerical response questions. Responses were summarized descriptively as percentages and as the median and inter quartile range (IQR) for quantitative variables.
The survey was completed by 149/1144 staff emergency physicians, with a response rate of 13%. Respondents used regional anesthesia a median of 2 (IQR 0–4) times in the past ten shifts. The most broadly used applications were soft tissue repair (84.5% of respondents, n = 126), fracture pain management (79.2%, n = 118) and orthopedic reduction (72.5%, n = 108). Respondents agreed that regional anesthesia is safe to use in the ED (98.7%) and were interested in using it more frequently (78.5%). Almost all (98.0%) respondents had point of care ultrasound available, however less than half (49.0%) felt comfortable using it for RA. Respondents indicated that they required more training (76.5%), a departmental protocol (47.0%), and nursing assistance (30.2%) to increase their use of RA.
Canadian emergency physicians use regional anesthesia infrequently but express an interest in expanding their use. While equipment is available, additional training, protocols, and increased support from nursing staff are modifiable factors that could facilitate uptake.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn by prehospital providers (PHPs) for protection from hazardous exposures. Evidence regarding the ability of PHPs to perform resuscitation procedures has been described in adult but not pediatric models. This study examined the effects of PPE on the ability of PHPs to perform resuscitation procedures on pediatric patients.
This prospective study was conducted at a US simulation center. Paramedics wore normal attire at the baseline session and donned full Level B PPE for the second session. During each session, they performed timed sets of psychomotor tasks simulating clinical care of a critically ill pediatric patient. The difference in time to completion between baseline and PPE sessions per task was examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.
A total of 50 paramedics completed both sessions. Median times for task completion at the PPE sessions increased significantly from baseline for several procedures: tracheal intubation (+4.5 s; P = 0.01), automated external defibrillator (AED) placement (+9.5 s; P = 0.01), intraosseous line insertion (+7 s; P < 0.0001), tourniquet (+8.5 s; P < 0.0001), intramuscular injection (+21-23 s, P < 0.0001), and pulse oximetry (+4 s; P < 0.0001). There was no significant increase in completion time for bag-mask ventilation or autoinjector use.
PPE did not have a significant impact on PHPs performing critical tasks while caring for a pediatric patient with a highly infectious or chemical exposure. This information may guide PHPs faced with the situation of resuscitating children while wearing Level B PPE.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to quantify atomic-scale elemental and isotopic compositional variations within a very small volume of material (typically <0.01 µm3). The small analytical volume ideally contains specific compositional or microstructural targets that can be placed within the context of the previously characterized surface in order to facilitate a correct interpretation of APT data. In this regard, careful targeting and preparation are paramount to ensure that the desired target, which is often smaller than 100 nm, is optimally located within the APT specimen. Needle-shaped specimens required for atom probe analysis are commonly prepared using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Here, we utilize FIB-SEM-based time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to illustrate a novel approach to targeting <100 nm compositional and isotopic variations that can be used for targeting regions of interest for subsequent lift-out and APT analysis. We present a new method for high-spatial resolution targeting of small features that involves using FIB-SEM-based electron deposition of platinum “buttons” prior to standard lift-out and sharpening procedures for atom probe specimen manufacture. In combination, FIB-ToF-SIMS analysis and application of the “button” method ensure that even the smallest APT targets can be successfully captured in extracted needles.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Wild birds have been the focus of a great deal of research investigating the epidemiology of zoonotic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in the environment. While enteric pathogens (e.g. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) and antimicrobial resistant bacteria of public health importance have been isolated from a wide variety of wild bird species, there is a considerable variation in the measured prevalence of a given microorganism from different studies. This variation may often reflect differences in certain ecological and biological factors such as feeding habits and immune status. Variation in prevalence estimates may also reflect differences in sample collection and processing methods, along with a host of epidemiological inputs related to overall study design. Because the generalizability and comparability of prevalence estimates in the wild bird literature are constrained by their methodological and epidemiological underpinnings, understanding them is crucial to the accurate interpretation of prevalence estimates. The main purpose of this review is to examine methodological and epidemiological inputs to prevalence estimates in the wild bird literature that have a major bearing on their generalizability and comparability. The inputs examined here include sample type, microbiological methods, study design, bias, sample size, definitions of prevalence outcomes and parameters, and control of clustering. The issues raised in this review suggest, among other things, that future prevalence studies of wild birds should avoid opportunistic sampling when possible, as this places significant limitations on the generalizability of prevalence data.
“Temporal plus” epilepsy (TPE) is a term that is used when the epileptogenic zone (EZ) extends beyond the boundaries of the temporal lobe. Stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) has been essential to identify additional EZs in adjacent structures that might be part of the temporal lobe/limbic network.
We present a small case series of temporal plus cases successfully identified by SEEG who were seizure-free after resective surgery.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 156 patients who underwent SEEG in 5 years. Six cases had TPE and underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with additional extra-temporal resections.
Five cases had a focus on the right hemisphere and one on the left. Three cases were non-lesional and three were lesional. Mean follow-up time since surgery was 2.9 years (SD ± 1.8). Three patients had subdural electrodes investigation prior or in addition to SEEG. All patients underwent standard ATL and additional extra-temporal resections during the same procedure or at a later date. All patients were seizure-free at their last follow-up appointment (Engel Ia = 3; Engel Ib = 2; Engel Ic = 1). Pathology was nonspecific/gliosis for all six cases.
TPE might explain some of the failures in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. We present a small case series of six patients in whom SEEG successfully identified this phenomenon and surgery proved effective.
Increasing weed control costs and limited herbicide options threaten vegetable crop profitability. Traditional interrow mechanical cultivation is very effective at removing weeds between crop rows. However, weed control within the crop rows is necessary to establish the crop and prevent yield loss. Currently, many vegetable crops require hand weeding to remove weeds within the row that remain after traditional cultivation and herbicide use. Intelligent cultivators have come into commercial use to remove intrarow weeds and reduce cost of hand weeding. Intelligent cultivators currently on the market such as the Robovator, use pattern recognition to detect the crop row. These cultivators do not differentiate crops and weeds and do not work well among high weed populations. One approach to differentiate weeds is to place a machine-detectable mark or signal on the crop (i.e., the crop has the mark and the weed does not), thereby facilitating weed/crop differentiation. Lettuce and tomato plants were marked with labels and topical markers, then cultivated with an intelligent cultivator programmed to identify the markers. Results from field trials in marked tomato and lettuce found that the intelligent cultivator removed 90% more weeds from tomato and 66% more weeds from lettuce than standard cultivators without reducing yields. Accurate crop and weed differentiation described here resulted in a 45% to 48% reduction in hand-weeding time per hectare.
We developed a tilt sensor for studying ice deformation and installed our tilt sensor systems in two boreholes drilled close to the shear margin of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to obtain kinematic measurements of streaming ice. We used the collected tilt data to calculate borehole deformation by tracking the orientation of the sensors over time. The sensors' tilts generally trended down-glacier, with an element of cross-glacier flow in the borehole closer to the shear margin. We also evaluated our results against flow dynamic parameters derived from Glen's exponential flow law and explored the parameter space of the stress exponent n and enhancement factor E. Comparison with values from ice deformation experiments shows that the ice on Jarvis is characterized by higher n values than that is expected in regions of low stress, particularly at the shear margin (~3.4). The higher n values could be attributed to the observed high total strains coupled with potential dynamic recrystallization, causing anisotropic development and consequently sped up ice flow. Jarvis' n values place the creep regime of the ice between basal slip and dislocation creep. Tuning E towards a theoretical upper limit of 10 for anisotropic ice with single-maximum fabric reduces the n values by 0.2.
Three familiar properties of a parabola are that it is the locus of points that are equidistant from the focus and the directrix, that it can be created by an intersection of a plane and a cone, and that incoming rays parallel to the axis are reflected to a single point. The first two are often used as definitions, and the third may be used as an alternative definition or characterisation.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
In a recent paper (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 861, 2019, pp. 328–348), Benilov derived equations governing a laminar liquid sheet (a curtain) that emanates from a slot whose centreline is inclined to the vertical. The equations are valid for slender sheets whose characteristic length scale in the direction of flow is much larger than its cross-sectional thickness. For a liquid that leaves a slot with average speed,
, volumetric flow rate per unit width,
, surface tension,
, and density,
, Benilov obtains parametric equations that predict steady-state curtain shapes that bend upwards against gravity provided
. Benilov’s parametric equations are shown to be identical to those derived by Finnicum, Weinstein, and Ruschak (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 255, 1993, pp. 647–665). In the latter form, it is straightforward to deduce an alternative solution of Benilov’s equations where a curtain falls vertically regardless of the slot’s orientation. This solution is consistent with prior experimental and theoretical results that show that a liquid curtain can emerge from a slot at an angle different from that of the slot centreline.
A survey of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) was conducted in the northern Ross Sea region during the winter of 2016 to document the timing and location of spawning activity, to collect biological information about reproductive status during the spawning season and to look for temporal signals in biological data from D. mawsoni that may indicate a spawning migration of mature toothfish from the continental slope region to the northern Ross Sea region. The 58 day survey showed that spawning of D. mawsoni began on some seamounts by early July. No changes were detected between winter and summer in length, age, sex ratio or condition factor distributions for D. mawsoni in the northern Ross Sea as hypothesized following a spawning migration from the slope to the northern Ross Sea region. These results suggest that the distribution of D. mawsoni in the Ross Sea is mainly accomplished through ontogenetic migration and not annual return spawning migrations.
The Upper Gunnison Basin (UGB), Colorado, is a montane region characterized by unusual physiography and topographic isolation. Excavations of three caves in the UGB provide one of the most diverse records of high-elevation late Quaternary vertebrates in North America. The localities, Haystack Cave (2450 m above sea level [m asl]), Cement Creek Cave (2860 m asl), and Signature Cave (3055 m asl), together provide a near-continuous record of vertebrate communities that extends from before the last glacial maximum to the present. These communities largely represent a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe-tundra environment that prevailed throughout the UGB in the late Pleistocene. At least five taxa of extinct large mammals disappear from the UGB by the Early Holocene; one small mammal (the short-faced skunk Brachyprotoma cf. B. brevimala) also became extinct. The fossil record further indicates that only four small extant mammals (Sorex preblei, Dicrostonyx sp., Lemmiscus curtatus, and Urocitellus elegans) were extirpated from the UGB by the Early Holocene, in part because of community restructuring and loss of open habitats with expansion of forests to higher elevations. An analysis of taxonomic richness and evenness at Cement Creek Cave indicates high resilience in the small mammal community despite major climate shifts over the past 40,000+ yr.