Neurodegerative disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have the potential for cell therapies and/or compound screening for treating affected individuals. While both protein and gene expression indicative of a neural phenotype has been exhibited in these differentiated cells, ultrastuctural studies thus far have been lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate hESC to neural differentiation culture conditions with ultrastructural changes observed in the treated cells. We demonstrate here that in basic culture conditions without growth factors or serum we obtain neural morphology. The addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum to cultures resulted in more robust neural differentiation. In addition to providing cues such as cell survival or lineage specification, additional factors also altered the intracellular structures and cell morphologies. Even though the addition of BDNF and serum did not increase synaptic formation, altered cellular structures such as abundant polyribosomes and more developed endoplasmic reticulum indicate a potential increase in protein production.