We have developed thin film heaters/sensors that can be integrated on top of superlattice microcoolers to measure the Seebeck coefficient perpendicular to the layer. In this paper, we discuss the Seebeck coefficients of InGaAs/InAlAs superlattices grown with Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) that have different doping concentrations, varying between 2e18, 4e18, and 8e18 to 3e19 cm−3. It was interesting to find out that – contrary to the behavior in bulk material – the Seebeck coefficient did not decrease monotonically with doping concentration. A preliminary theory of thermoelectric transport in superlattices in the regime of miniband formation has been developed to fit the experimental results. The miniband formation could enhance the thermoelectric power factor (Seebeck coefficient square times electrical conductivity) and thereby improve the Figure of merit, ZT. With this improvement, InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice microcooler become a promising candidate for on-chip temperature control.