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Terrestrial environments tend to be characterized by an incomplete record of past conditions. For the MIS 3–2 periods, there is only one known site in Poland—Horoszki Duże—in which a probably continuous record of climate change has been preserved. However, this site does not have any high precision multi-proxy analyses. In the absence of continuous high-resolution records, we decided to gather and analyze scattered information. We assembled data originating from various sites in Poland and checked whether the available results of 14C and luminescence dating presented in the form of probability density distributions (PDF) and kernel density estimation (KDE) models would allow their reinterpretation. The data were compared to the Greenland isotope curve to see whether they were consistent with the hypothesis that the number of “warming-cooling” cycles recorded in the examined sediments was of the same order as in those ice-core records. Previously in Poland, usually only two interstadial periods (i.e., Hengelo and Denekamp, 36–38.6 and 28–32 14C kBP, respectively) have been identified in the discussed period. The joint analysis of data from a larger area revealed more warming-cooling events than recorded from individual sites.
Soltan W, Sitek E, Wichowicz H, Wieczorek D, Slawek J. Abnormal gait and bradykinesia in the preclinical phase of Huntington's disease – psychogenic movement disorder?
Objective: Psychiatric symptoms may occur in individuals at risk of Huntington's disease (HD) regardless of their genetic status. Psychopathological symptomatology is attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. In case of asymptomatic gene carriers, psychiatric symptoms may precede involuntary movements.
Methods: We report the first case with abnormal gait and bradykinesia in preclinical adult HD. A 33-year-old woman blind to her mother's HD diagnosis and her own genetic status developed motor slowing and gait disturbance. The symptoms withdrew due to counselling and antidepressant medications. Subsequently, she was informed her own and her mother's genetic testing results, but 2-year follow-up did not reveal the onset of choreic movements, cognitive deterioration or depressive symptoms in the patient. Personality assessment (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) and neurological examination results are presented, accompanied by 2-year follow-up data. Follow-up examination included Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (motor, behaviour and function), Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and neuropsychological assessment (trail-making test, Stroop test, verbal fluency trials, symbol digit modalities test, digit span, serial seven subtraction, Hopkins verbal learning test and nine-hole peg test).
Conclusion: Motor abnormalities in individuals at risk of HD may be of psychogenic origin. It is a matter of debate if this psychogenic reaction presented as hypokinetic syndrome may be a result of choreic movements of her mother (hyperkinetic syndrome) and depression or if this psychogenic reaction represents the preclinical psychiatric abnormalities in an asymptomatic gene carrier preceding the onset of the disease.
Individuals suffering from Huntington's disease (HD) have been shown to present with poor self-awareness of a variety of symptoms. The aim of this study was to better assess the self-awareness of motor symptoms and activities of daily living (ADL) impairment in HD, in comparison to Parkinson's disease (PD) and cervical dystonia (CD). In particular, the anosognosia/anosodiaphoria of involuntary movements has been investigated. Self-awareness was tested in 23 patients with HD by comparing patient and caregiver ratings in reference to clinical control groups (25 PD with dyskinesias, PDdys; 21 PD without dyskinesias, PDndys; and 20 with CD). Patients were assessed neurologically by relevant rating scales. Self-awareness was tested using a scale based on 15 films demonstrating 3 types of motor symptoms (chorea/dyskinesias, parkinsonism, torticollis) as well as the Self-Assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale. General cognitive status, verbal learning, cognitive control, and mood were also analyzed. Our results indicate that self-awareness of choreic movements was affected more severely in HD than in PDdys, despite comparable cognitive status. Patient–proxy agreement on ADL impairment was roughly similar in all clinical groups. The results are discussed in the context of orbitofrontal–limbic pathology as a potential trigger of anosognosia/anosodiaphoria in individuals with HD. (JINS, 2011, 17, 788–795)
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