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This study deals with the characteristics of simultaneous photon and electron beams in homogenous and inhomogeneous phantoms by experimental and Monte Carlo dosimetry, for therapeutic purposes. Materials and methods: Both 16 and 20 MeV high-energy electron beams were used as the original beam to strike perforated lead sheets to produce the mixed beam. The dosimetry results were achieved by measurement in an ion chamber in a water phantom and film dosimetry in a Perspex nasal phantom, and then compared with those calculated through a simulation approach. To evaluate two-dimensional dose distribution in the inhomogeneous medium, the dose–area histogram was obtained.
The highest percentage of photon contribution in mixed beam was found to be 36% for 2-mm thickness of lead layer with holes diameter of 0·2 cm for a 20 MeV primary electron energy. For small fields, the percentage depth dose parameters variations were found to be similar to pure electron beam within ±2%. The most feasible flatness in beam profile was 11% for pure electron and 7% for the mixed beam. Penumbra changes as function of depth was about ten times better than in pure electron field.
The results present some dosimetric advantages that can make this study a platform for the production of simultaneous mixed beams in future linear accelerators (LINACs), which through redesign of the LINAC head, which could lead to setup error reduction and a decrease of intra-fractional tumour cells repair.
Intraoperative radiotherapy is a method of choice to deliver a critical radiation dose to the tumour bed immediately after surgical excision.
The purpose of this work is to check the dose delivered to the patients during intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in the conservative treatment of breast cancer, by means of reference dose measurement using radiochromic (EBT-2) films.
Material and methods
Ninety patients with early-stage breast cancer underwent exclusive IOERT to the tumour bed using a LIAC linear accelerator. Absolute dose measurements were done with film pieces. After irradiation, the pixel values of the films were obtained via MATLAB and ImageJ softwares. Calibration curve was also used for calculating net optical density. Expected dose was compared to the patient delivered dose.
The mean deviation of the delivered dose from the expected one was 2·56% that is well in the accepted criteria. Only in one case, there was a larger deviation due to barometer miscalibration.
EBT-2 film response is independent from dose-per-pulse and as it was shown in this study it can be robustly used during breast IOERT for dosimetric and also positioning verifications.
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